create new business strategy for Solid Waste Management Department to Reduce the numbers of accidents for garbage drivers need new idea and looking for cost , benefits .
create new business strategy for Solid Waste Management Department to Reduce the numbers of accidents for garbage drivers need new idea and looking for cost , benefits . payback period , conclusion , matrix model , graphs , number , finical budget you can use in article any states like an exmple or any company use the idea already !! and what the company report for accident after they applied this strategy note I already have those Idea has been done : Blind Spots – Women hiring – Camera and Visual awareness Safety Culture – Training (need to work on) — Safety awareness -Recommendation I’m looking for new strategy outside those Idea I mentioned to avoid any reputation for the ideas graphs , finical budget and pay back period after applied , the goal is Goal: Reduce the number of accidents for garbage drivers for for Solid Waste Management Department on the city .
ree Space Optical (FSO) correspondence includes the transmission of information through a remote medium utilizing adjusted close infrared light shaft (with wavelength between 800 nm-1700 nm)  as transporter wave. FSO correspondence connections can be utilized for satellite-to-satellite cross connections  , all over connections between space stages air ship, ships, and other ground stages, and among portable and stationary terminals inside the air . Light as a medium of correspondence isn't a current development as it was utilized as a part of the Roman time, where cleaned metal plates where utilized as mirrors to reflect daylight for long-go flagging. A comparable daylight controlled gadget was utilized by the U.S. military to send transmit data between peaks in the mid 1800's . Extra optical correspondence improvements happened amid the World War II, and the post-war period experienced further advancements in this field powered by electronic developments, for example, the transistors, vacuum tubes and coordinated circuits, and most particularly the innovation of the laser in the mid 1960s . The remarkable qualities of laser, for example, its effective rational light bar, the likelihood of balancing it at high recurrence and the low bar disparity has made it the favored light hotspot for upgraded FSO applications. FSO correspondence is thought to be one of the key advances for acknowledging fast multi-gigabit-per-second extensive limit interchanges when fiber optic link is neither down to earth nor plausible . FSO correspondence can be of vital preferred standpoint especially due to its remote nature and a few applications, making it a practical other option to the laying of fiber link underground which is costly and has ecological results. Dissimilar to radio and microwave frameworks, FSO has higher information rate because of its high transporter recurrence, low power necessities, no recurrence permit required and significantly littler bundling . In FSO joins, climatic turbulence is fit for debasing the wave-front nature of a flag conveying laser pillar, bringing about flag misfortune at the beneficiary and in this way hindering the connection execution ,. Moreover, haze, snow, rain, clean, smoke and other airborne particles add to the lessening of the flag conveying bar and possible debasement of the FSO connect. A few investigations have been done on the environmental turbulence channels of a FSO framework , . The genuine execution measure of a FSO correspondence framework is given by the double blunder likelihood likewise alluded to as Bit Error Rate (BER).FSO correspondence include the utilization of optical intensifiers either as an optical sponsor or optical preamplification. Intensification is accomplished by fortified emanation of photons from dopant particles in the dopant fiber by utilizing a direct laser as utilized as a part of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) or electrically as utilized as a part of semiconductor lasers, because of the excitation of particles from a higher vitality state to a lower vitality state. The energized particles can likewise rot suddenly (unconstrained discharge) or even through non-radioactive procedures including cooperations with phonons of the glass grid. These last two rot systems rival animated discharge diminishing the effectiveness of light enhancement presenting what is known as the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) clamor. Computerized Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) with coordinate discovery is the favored tweak procedure for FSO correspondence frameworks due to the absence of scattering over the free space station  , none prerequisite of edge for recognition  and the unpredictability related with stage or recurrence balance . Right now, the advantages of FSO interchanges have not been completely misused, henceforth more connected examines are required at the research facility to help exchange the execution of FSO optical frameworks into genuine applications. Part TWO Writing REVIEW 2.1 FSO – PRINCIPLES AND CLASSIFICATION A FSO framework comprises fundamentally of a transmitter, more often than not an adjusted laser or light discharging diode (LED) which delivers light to convey information through space, and a collector, for example, a photodetector which gets near collimated radiation free of the transmitter pointing concentrated focal point . Different segments incorporate shaft control optics, accumulation focal point, optical enhancer, sunlight based radiation channels and different hardware . As a rule, FSO frameworks can be characterized into indoor and open air FSO correspondence ,  in view of the separation secured for correspondence and the nonappearance of ecological impacts in the indoor FSO interface. The essential working standards of indoor point to point frameworks are not quite the same as open air correspondence interfaces but rather the plans are altogether different to suit different prerequisites. Some exploration on transmitter and beneficiary plans for long-go FSO correspondence frameworks,  like satellite and climatic optical interchanges, have just been accounted for, which may be valuable to short-go frameworks. As of late, numerous indoor correspondence frameworks utilize laser diode as light sources . 2.1.1 INDOOR FSO COMMUNICATION The indoor FSO correspondence connection can be additionally named simple to use joins which are subdivided into infrared information affiliation (IRDA) and retro-reflect connections; and systems which have two composes in particular the diffuse systems and observable pathway systems ,. Indoor FSO applications are bound to short separations; consequently it is fitting to optical FSO frameworks that utilization wide disparity bars instead of limited shafts which are appropriate for point to point frameworks. Such frameworks are some of the time alluded to as optical telepoint frameworks . Because of the way that indoor FSO frameworks are not influenced by barometrical impacts, the power spending plan depends exclusively on the transmitter dispatch control, free space misfortune, and recipient affectability. As revealed in Mahdiraji and Zahedi , the utilization of infrared frequencies for short-go remote correspondences has gotten broad enthusiasm throughout the decade, and numerous potential uses of this innovation have been recommended. A portion of the applications incorporate versatile gadget, for example, PCs, advanced collaborators, and convenient phones. Numerous indoor correspondence frameworks utilizing infrared LED remote connections have been accounted for in , . Utilizing unadulterated diffuse connection, a rapid and power proficient indoor remote infrared correspondence utilizing code joining was accounted for in Majumdar and Ricklin , where a numerous transmitter interface configuration was utilized with a tight field of view heading assorted variety recipient. The plan objective was to kill the impact of bury image obstruction (ISI) with the goal that power productive flagging plans, for example, DPPM can be utilized at a high information rate. A convenient handset for indoor FSO interface was accounted for by Jiang et al  .The framework utilizes a transmitter of eye safe infrared LEDs and a recipient of photodiode exhibits with multi channel trans-impedance-summer design. The got flag accomplished a BER of 10-4 at a plane of 2 m far from the transmitter, even at a point 50 degree off the transmitter's vertical hub. The bit rate of the handset was up to 40 Mbit/sec in an indoor non-guided infrared FSO connect to be reached out to 100 Mbit/s utilizing LEDs with higher cut recurrence. 2.2.2 OUTDOOR FSO COMMUNICATION Dissimilar to the indoor FSO correspondence interface, the open air connect covers a long separation more than 500 m  utilizing the air as its common medium of correspondence. It is far-fetched that long separation point-to-point frameworks will surpass the 4-5 km run because of air channel debasement. Open air point-to-point frameworks utilize high power lasers that work in the Class 3B eye security band to accomplish ideal power interface spending plan, especially if high piece rate (e.g., 155 Mb/s) is required . Keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish an enhanced power spending plan, an examination was completed by Heatley et al  to accomplish a trial 155 Mb/s interface that cover a 4 km separate between Imperial College and University College London. The point of the examination was to limit the general spread misfortune focussing on the free space misfortune and the collector affectability as meager should be possible to diminish the environmental misfortunes. A low power laser coupled to an erbium doped fiber intensifier (EDFA) was utilized as the source; two galactic telescopes (Schmidt-Cassegrain, 20 cm gap) were utilized at both the source and collector closes, and an Avalanche photodiode (APD) was utilized as beneficiary. The aftereffect of the investigation was that the measurement at the beneficiary was decreased to 0.5 m which compares to 8 dB free space misfortune from a bar breadth of 2 m (20 dB free space misfortune). The real issue experienced was keeping up the pillar arrangement which relies upon temperature changes. Despite the fact that the APD collector is moderately exorbitant, it enhanced the beneficiary affectability and they are for the most part utilized for long separation frameworks. FSO is entrenched for intersatellite and profound space correspondences  however it can likewise be utilized as a part of ground-to-space connect, Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicle (UAV) to ground interface, and among portable and stationary terminals inside the air . New zones of utilization incorporate quantum key, movement and telematics . It has been anticipated that FSO can be productively used as option for last-mile issue , , . As per Majumdar and Ricklin , a gathering of scientists announced the outline and advancement of obtaining, following and guiding subsystem for UAV toward ground free space optical interchanges connect. The correspondence interface was produced from a UAV to stationary ground stations situated at Wrightwood, California and Maui, Hawaii. The scope of the UAV was 50 km. the downlink laser transmitter wavelength was 1550 nm and had energy of 200 mW for building up a 2.5 Gbps information rate correspondence for a BER of 10-9. Moreover analysts have displayed comes about because of exploratory demonst>GET ANSWER