It is 0730 hours on a coolish spring morning. You are dispatched to a report of a man in a boarding house (supported accommodation) known for frequent disturbances who is unconscious. Upon arrival, an approximately 45-year-old male is found with multiple stab wounds to the chest, back and arms who is lying prone in a pool of blood outside wearing blood soaked singlet and underpants. He is noted on primary assessment be drowsy, confused, pale and cool to touch.

No danger – victim states the person who stabbed him (unknown) has fled the scene. No weapon near patient.

Your primary assessment finds the following:

AVPU Opens eyes to voice

RR 32 (shallow)

Auscultation Equal air entry with no adventitious sounds

Trachea Midline

Effort Increased

SpO2 92%

Blood Loss Estimated blood loss is 1500mls – no spurting

Pulse No radial pulse, brachial = 132 regular, weak thready

Skin Cool, pale, diaphoretic

ECG Sinus tachycardia rate of 132

BP 70/45mmHg

Central capillary refill 4 seconds

GCS Eye opening to voice, confused verbal response and obeying motor commands

BGL 4.2mmol/L

Pupils Equal and reacting to light

Temperature 35.5°C

Pain 4/10 Exposure

Exposure of patient shows 20 stab wounds (lacerations approximately 3-5cm deep and lengths varying from 5cm-10cm) to chest, back and arms with estimated time of injury 2300 hours night before (8.5 hours ago). No other injuries found.

Other Information:

• You estimate the patients’ weight is 67kg
• No drug paraphernalia present
• PHx: Alcohol abuse (has been sober for 1 month)
• Medication: none
• Allergies: states none known
• You are 20 minutes from your state trauma centre.

1. Outline your management and preliminary diagnosis for this patient and provide rationales (backed by current evidence) for your interventions.

2. What body systems must be addressed to ensure they are functioning properly?

3. 4 hours ago this patient had a blood pressure of 110/65 (all other signs the same)- explain why this patient was then normotensive.

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.