Research questions provide a map to assist the researcher in the navigation of thoughts, literature-based foundation, design strategy, and interpretive lens through which to draw conclusions (Williams, 2007). When taking a quantitative approach, the goal is to conduct an empirical investigation into reality using numerical measurements and statistical analyses to emphasize objectivity (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016; Williams, 2007). As illustrated in Figure 1 below (also attached as a separate image to this discussion post), quantitative research questions can be categorized as either descriptive, comparative, or relationship-based (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006). The distinction among these categories hinges on the underlying motivation and whether the objective is to measure a descriptive response, detect a comparative difference, or uncover a trend in relationship (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006). The type of research question also drives the choice of analysis method, as some techniques are more appropriate for a certain setting (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006; Williams, 2007). An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, for example, is best suited to find trends among continuous or dichotomous predictors of a continuous response (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006).
Figure 1 . Categories of Quantitative Research Questions. (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006).
For my own research that is focused on the statistical analysis of adaptive clinical trials, software efficiency is one aspect on which I intend to concentrate. A research question tailored to this goal could be: Is there a difference in efficiency among statistical software packages? To translate this into a simplified and testable analysis, I could create a dataset that contains the run-times (measured in milliseconds) that it takes for each considered package (SAS and R) to process the same program. Various types of adaptive programs would be run, and the associated number of probability dimensions of each program would also be recorded. My null hypothesis would be that there is no difference in run-time between the two packages. My alternative hypothesis is that programs with higher dimensions will take a longer time to run in SAS than in R. This is a directional, or one-tailed, alternative hypothesis because it is specifying that not only is there an expected difference, but that the difference is intended to go in a specific direction (Pallmann et al., 2018). Tested with an analysis of variance model, the dependent variable would be run-time, and the independent variables would be statistical package, program dimension, and the interaction between package and dimension.
Quantitative research questions and hypotheses go together for researchers using quantitative research methods. Quantitative research questions focus a research study on the relationships between independent and dependent variables being studied by the researcher (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). There are three categories of quantitative research: (1) comparing groups on an independent variable to see the impact on a dependent variable, (2) relating or correlating one or more independent variables to one or more dependent variables, and (3) describing responses to the independent, mediating or dependent variables (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).
Research Question: How does using emerging technologies for cross-project knowledge transfer enable project managers to assimilate cross-project knowledge and use that knowledge for problem solving on their project?
The purpose of my proposed quantitative study is to analyze how using new and emerging technologies for project knowledge transfer enables project managers to assimilate knowledge and use the knowledge to solve problems on their projects. The research study looks at technology factors enabling the transfer and assimilation of project knowledge across projects in the same organization. The two types of cross-project knowledge transfer methods to be studied are technology-formal and technology-informal (Landaeta, 2003; 2008). The study participants should be current, practicing project managers across all disciplines.
Null Research Hypothesis: There is no relationship between the use of emerging technologies for project knowledge transfer and the project manager’s ability to assimilate the cross-project knowledge and use the knowledge to solve problems.
Quantitative hypotheses predict the outcomes of the relationships between the variables being studied (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). The study hypothesis as constructed is nondirectional and does not make a directional prediction about the study’s outcome (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). The variables in my research study are emerging technologies for cross-project knowledge transfer (independent variable) cross-project knowledge assimilation by the project manager (dependent or independent variable depending on whether or not the study manipulates two independent variables versus one relative to the outcome) and the project manager’s use of assimilated knowledge for decision making and problem solving (dependent variable). Identifying dependent and independent variables does not guarantee your research data will support a cause and effect relationship (Leedy and Ormrod, 2016).
The Indian economy has demonstrated a momentous development after the appropriation of advancement strategy. The opening up of the Indian economy in the mid 1990s prompted increment in modern yield and at the same time brought the swelling Rate up in India. There was a monstrous weight on the swelling rate because of the awesome development pace of work and mechanical yield. The fundamental worry of the Reserve Bank of India (the national bank) and the Ministry of Finance, Government of India was the pervasive and irregular ascent of the swelling rate. Expanding expansion rate could be inconvenient to the anticipated development of Indian economy. In this manner, the Reserve Bank of India was placing checks and measures in different approaches in order to put a stop to the rising swelling. The Indian business network and the overall population were guaranteed by the national bank that the inflationary ascent was innocuous yet at the same time certain fears existed among them. The valuing divergence of farming items between the maker and end-shopper was adding to the expanding Inflation Rate. Aside from this the lofty ascent of costs of sustenance items, fabricating items, and necessities had additionally launch the Inflation Rate. Because of this, the Wholesale Prices Index (WPI) of India arrived at 6.1% and the Cash Reserve Ratio contacted 5.5% on sixth January, 2007. The Reserve Bank of India gave top need to value steadiness in its as of late drafted money related arrangement in order to capture the frenzy and uneasiness among the Indian business circles. It likewise plans to support the terrific pace of monetary development of India. The Reserve Bank of India raised the Cash Reserve Ratio and utilized it as a device to capture the expanding Inflation Rate. Supporting the valuing uniqueness between the maker and the buyer is the main answer for this issue. Just this will guarantee swelling adjustment and in this manner practical monetary development of India. From the earliest starting point of FY2008 the Indian economy confronted an ascent in the costs of vegetables, beats and other essential nourishment stuffs. This was went with sharp ascent in the costs when the yearly approach explanation for 2008-09 was disclosed on April 29. Swelling expanded consistently during the year, arriving at 8.75% before the part of the bargain in June when this figure bounced to 11% at that point there was a disturbing increment in the costs. There were numerous purposes behind it however one of the fundamental main impetuses was decrease in government fuel sponsorships, which lifted gas costs by a normal 10%. To be sure, by July 2008, the key Indian Inflation Rate for example the Wholesale Price Index contacted the sign of 12.6%, most noteworthy rate in recent long stretches of the Indian history. This was right around multiple times the RBI's objective of 4.1% and nearly served when contrasted with a year ago. This ceaseless ascent slipped back to 12.4% by mid-August. Since the start of 2008 mix of different interior and outside components prompted soak residential swelling and the resultant advances taken to control it in were easing back the pace of development. These variables incorporated the stamped ascend in the worldwide costs of oil, nourishment, and metals, directing the pace of capital inflows, compounding present and monetary record deficiencies, expanding cost of assets, minor deterioration of the Indian rupee against the dollar, and moderate development in mechanical economies. The Indian economy was at a basic point where arrangements to contain swelling and guarantee macroeconomic adjustment have become the dominant focal point. In the primary quarter of FY2008 (for example April - June), development pace of GDP backed off to 7.9% from 9.2% in the comparing earlier year quarter, for the slowest extension in three and a half years. The most momentous decrease was in industry where development rate tumbled to 6.9% this was primarily a direct result of cutting in the assembling development rate to 5.6%. The stoppage was enlarged when agribusiness and administrations segment demonstrated an immaterial development of 1.4% and 0.9% focuses, beneath their exhibitions of the year-sooner quarter.Over the medium term, the fundamental goal of the legislature was to cut down swelling to 3%. The Repo and Reverse Repo Rates stayed unaltered though Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) was expanded by 0.25 rate focuses. A review of assembling organizations was led by the Reserve Bank of India in June 2008 which demonstrated a control in business idealism. This was confirmed by the composite business good faith list for July - September 2008 that was set up by Dun and Bradstreet, which demonstrates a decrease of 11.2% when contrasted with the past quarter. In July, the BBB-rating on outside cash obligation was affirmed yet downsized the viewfor India's long - term neighborhood money obligation from stable to negative, with a recognizable crumbling in the financial position.Growth of the expansive cash supply (M3) must be directed in the scope of 16.5 to 17 percent. While stores were planned to ascend by 17% and non-sustenance credit payment by banks will develop at a moderate pace of 20% when contrasted with 22.5% in 2007-08. Credit dispensed by banks a year ago was less when contrasted with the past period. Bank credit had developed by a burning 30% consistently for continuously three years starting in 2004-05. The joined spending shortages of the focal and state governments have been considerably decreased in the course of recent years. This reflected earnest endeavors by the legislature to hold fast to financial duty enactment. For FY2008, the focal Government's shortfall is planned at 2.5% of GDP and the states' at 2.1% (4.6% of GDP on a combined premise). The main considerations that fortify the calculable financial combination from the base were a more extensive duty base bolstered by a light economy and improved consistence. Two primary circumstances that must be defeated before accomplishing the deficiency focuses for the FY2008 are: an easing back economy that may constrain the income lightness found as of late and ceaseless weight by the Central Government to raise the pay rates of its representatives by 21% (about 0.3% of GDP) because of proposals of the Sixth Central Pay Commission. Comparative compensation increments were reported quickly by about six states and others were following the suit. Then again arrangement for these pay increments was not planned. Impacts Inflationary weights in any economy prompts deterioration of its local cash. This is the thing that our Indian economy was looking because of the running swelling and subsequently Indian rupee deteriorated by about 20% since April 2008. Expansion influences 1.Common man: Inflation impacts a typical man in various jobs, for example, a customer: Products, for example, unrefined petroleum, composts, pharmaceutical items, minerals and metals, or utilize imported parts, for example, Personal Computers and PCs are legitimately imported. Because of devaluation of the Indian Rupee every one of these products turned out to be over the top expensive. Segments in PCs, for example, processor, hard circle drive and motherboard are additionally imported. Items, for example, mouse, console and screen additionally saw an effect on their costs because of Rupee deterioration. Swelling may ascend in an economy when the information costs increment. As a speculator: Devaluation of rupee makes imports of different segments, capital products and crude materials progressively costly. As sources of info and other gear that are imported get costlier and lessening the overall revenues. Organizations that import products in mass and those with overwhelming remote cash borrowings might be discounted in the financial exchange as the rupee devalues. As a Wage-worker: During swelling this class of basic man endured a great deal on account of two reasons- Increment in wages and pay rates neglected to keep pace with the rising costs. Wages expanded during expansion however there is constantly a period slack between the ascent in cost and increment in wages. Thus basic man looses during the interceding time frame. Fare organizations: Because of deterioration of residential money exporters get better costs for their merchandise and ventures when sold in outside business sectors. Outside Investors: Deterioration of Indian Rupee diminished the profits that remote financial specialists used to gain by putting resources into Indian organizations. Devaluation of a cash activated FII surges. NRI financial specialists, who recently put their cash in India under different store conspires because of high loan costs, began finding those plans less alluring by virtue of rupee deterioration. Nation's Balance of Payments: One of the disadvantages of devaluation of Rupee is that fares turned out to be modest as far as outside cash and imports become costlier. Current record shortage enlarged in light of the fact that Indian imports fundamentally comprises basics, for example, unrefined petroleum, characteristic assets and numerous capital products. Devaluation of Indian Rupee made the fares progressively focused all inclusive and thus higher fares concealed the exchange deficiency. Ranchers: The costs of the essential items, for example, minerals, diesel oil and fuel, control light and greases went up altogether. This divergence influenced the agrarian area in two different ways- It restrictively affected interests in cultivating and influenced the creation productivity. On one hand the horticultural ware costs were falling or stale and then again expanding costs of agribusiness inputs and other day by day life wares prompted weakening in the expectation for everyday comforts of the ranchers. Costs paid by the customer have affected by the typical cost for basic items of the whole worth chain, which develops on the wasteful markets and this adds to the last cost of the material. For instance, high vitality cost itself has added to the expansion in the expense of sources of info required for agribusiness other than pushing up the advertising expenses of ranch items. IT organizations: The IT division is among the most elevated enrollment specialists in the Indian economy and a devaluing rupee spells uplifting news for the area. Bills for Information Technology organizations are fundamentally arranged in dollars or in other outside>GET ANSWER