Causal relationship


most important- book for course is fundamentals of research in criminology and criminal justice:ronet d. bachman, russell k. schuss
As stated in the course presentation, a major goal of this course is to help students become more informed consumers of criminological research by increasing their ability to understand and critically evaluate the work of others. For the second take-home assignment, not unlike the first one, each student is required to prepare written answers to specific questions about a published study which, in this case is:

Harari, H., Harari, O., & White, R. (1985). The Reaction to Rape by American Male Bystanders. The Journal of Social Psychology, 125(5), 653-658.

You can download a pdf version of the article

1a. Develop a path model that represents the proposed relationships between concepts in this study. (2 marks)

1b. Discuss whether the model you developed in Q1a is a theory? Remember your answer must demonstrate an understanding of the way in which “theory” is defined in this course. (3 marks)

  1. Assess the extent to which the research design employed in this study supports the conclusion that a causal relationship exists between concepts/variables. Again, your answer must demonstrate an understanding of the necessary criteria used for showing causation in criminology and the research design that provides the strongest evidence of causal connections. (5 marks)

3a. Describe the operational definition of the dependent variable. (2 marks)

3b. Describe, in considerable detail, one strategy that YOU would use to assess the reliability of this operational definition.

3c. Excluding face validity, describe, in considerable detail, one strategy that YOU would use to assess the validity of this operational definition.

  1. Does this study have strong (A) Cross-population generalizability, (B) Sample generalizability, (C) BOTH A AND B, OR (D) NONE OF THE ABOVE. Explain your answer in full making sure to demonstrate an understanding of key sampling concepts.

Before actually writing your assignment, I strongly encourage you to read and then re-read the article with the aim of identifying what you specifically need to know about the study to answer the above questions. When writing the assignment please keep the following in mind:

• Use only relevant course materials (the Bachman and Schutt textbook and lecture notes/handouts).

• Make sure to define important research concepts. However do not simply re-state the definition that appears in the Glossary of the textbook or one that can be “borrowed” from the Internet. Instead, I want you to define concepts in “your own words”. If you need to reference the textbook and/or the article, then do so in the following way: Bachman and Schutt, pxx and Harari et al. pxx.

• Make direct reference to relevant parts of the study. In other words, identify and discuss aspects of the study that pertain to your answer. For example, if you argue the sample size is too small, then state the actual sample size and then discuss why you believe it is too small. Also do not provide an overall summary of the research methodology employed in the study because I have read the article. It is also unnecessary for you to write an introduction or conclusion for your assignment.

• Answer each question using well organized paragraphs and grammatically correct sentences. Do not write using POINT- FORM and sentence fragments.

Sample Solution