most important- book for course is fundamentals of research in criminology and criminal justice:ronet d. bachman, russell k. schuss
As stated in the course presentation, a major goal of this course is to help students become more informed consumers of criminological research by increasing their ability to understand and critically evaluate the work of others. For the second take-home assignment, not unlike the first one, each student is required to prepare written answers to specific questions about a published study which, in this case is:
Harari, H., Harari, O., & White, R. (1985). The Reaction to Rape by American Male Bystanders. The Journal of Social Psychology, 125(5), 653-658.
You can download a pdf version of the article
1a. Develop a path model that represents the proposed relationships between concepts in this study. (2 marks)
1b. Discuss whether the model you developed in Q1a is a theory? Remember your answer must demonstrate an understanding of the way in which “theory” is defined in this course. (3 marks)
- Assess the extent to which the research design employed in this study supports the conclusion that a causal relationship exists between concepts/variables. Again, your answer must demonstrate an understanding of the necessary criteria used for showing causation in criminology and the research design that provides the strongest evidence of causal connections. (5 marks)
3a. Describe the operational definition of the dependent variable. (2 marks)
3b. Describe, in considerable detail, one strategy that YOU would use to assess the reliability of this operational definition.
3c. Excluding face validity, describe, in considerable detail, one strategy that YOU would use to assess the validity of this operational definition.
- Does this study have strong (A) Cross-population generalizability, (B) Sample generalizability, (C) BOTH A AND B, OR (D) NONE OF THE ABOVE. Explain your answer in full making sure to demonstrate an understanding of key sampling concepts.
Before actually writing your assignment, I strongly encourage you to read and then re-read the article with the aim of identifying what you specifically need to know about the study to answer the above questions. When writing the assignment please keep the following in mind:
• Use only relevant course materials (the Bachman and Schutt textbook and lecture notes/handouts).
• Make sure to define important research concepts. However do not simply re-state the definition that appears in the Glossary of the textbook or one that can be “borrowed” from the Internet. Instead, I want you to define concepts in “your own words”. If you need to reference the textbook and/or the article, then do so in the following way: Bachman and Schutt, pxx and Harari et al. pxx.
• Make direct reference to relevant parts of the study. In other words, identify and discuss aspects of the study that pertain to your answer. For example, if you argue the sample size is too small, then state the actual sample size and then discuss why you believe it is too small. Also do not provide an overall summary of the research methodology employed in the study because I have read the article. It is also unnecessary for you to write an introduction or conclusion for your assignment.
• Answer each question using well organized paragraphs and grammatically correct sentences. Do not write using POINT- FORM and sentence fragments.
At present, society is growing quickly so humanity needs greater power. Most nations are utilizing the technique for consuming petroleum derivatives to make capacity to create the materials which impacts the earth since carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide are transmitted. These gases can construct the nursery impact and corrosive downpour contamination, which will make the world's temperature hotter and the downpour acidic. In this manner, humanity utilizes better approaches to create vitality, for example, atomic, wind and sun powered. In this article, atomic vitality will be looked into with wind vitality; them two are vitality for manageable advancement, however the primary contrasts are their area, condition and productivity. The likeness is that both atomic vitality and wind vitality are will have a negative effect for condition, albeit them two are not item terrible for condition gas. As indicated by Darvill (2010), the atomic vitality is created by the huge cores part to discharge vitality. Be that as it may, after atomic splitting, the atomic power plant will create some risk squander, when the radiation occurring, Marples (1996) expressed that Iodine-131, Cesium-137, and Strontium-90 were the most genuine radioactive components to be dispersed by the debacle at Chornobyl. The cases it was atomic and contamination. For instance, Marples (1996) revealed that the renowned atomic spillage is the debacle at Chornobyl on the center of ninety century which the sullied zones incorporate, roughly 20 level of the domain of Belarus, around 8 level of Ukraine and about 0.5-1.0 level of the Russian Federation, by and large the complete zone is about the size of the Northern Ireland consolidated the state include of Kentucky or of Scotland. Other than that, wind vitality is likewise destructive to the earth. Since wind control vitality needs to construct a high pinnacle, put an enormous propeller on the top, the breeze blow the propeller turn round. Moreover the windmill can murder feathered creatures, Darvill (2012) appear than relocating groups tend like to reliant on solid breeze move. Be that as it may, the windmills additionally prefer to work in those regions. Accordingly the species will be reduction or vanish to break the natural equalization, which is the equivalent severely for conditions. The two different ways to make power are terrible for conditions. One clear contrast is the topographical impediments of intensity age. At the point when a nation found the better approach to make vitality, this is the most significant thing they considered. Atomic vitality and wind control vitality both have geographic restrictions. Most atomic power stations are worked in seaside districts, on the grounds that the atomic power stations need to utilize the ocean water as the coolant. In the event that the stations were constructing inland, atomic power station likewise can utilize the crisp water as the coolant, anyway the speculation would be raised. The area of wind power is progressively significant for age, humankind might want to construct a ton of these towers together, to set up a "wind homestead" and produce more vitality, before structure the station, the most significant part is to pick a spot which has solid breeze as "wind ranch". Duncan (2000) called attention to that the breeze speed ought to be around in 25 meter for every second to ensure that the breeze turbines are working steadily, it than mean the breeze must solid and dependable. For example, Darvill (2010) demonstrated that at the open fields, on the highest points of slopes and holes in mountains. In this manner, wind vitality can't be utilized all over the place. Another distinction between atomic vitality and wind vitality is effectiveness. Atomic power stations function as the non-renewable energy source consuming stations, the two of which are warming the water to make steam, that turn turbines and make electrical power. "One ton of uranium delivers more vitality than that created by a few million tons of coal or a few million barrels of oil" (Thinkquest). In this manner, the atomic power vitality is more efficientlyâ than the petroleum products when making power. Anyway wind control vitality is a sort of low effectiveness vitality. Duncan (2000) outlined that both of from sun oriented vitality and wind control vitality, the expense of created power are generous higher than for a warmth power station, besides the generators are sporadic since they require daylight or wind to work. For instance "At present just 1 level of the territory of California's power supply originates from 17000 breeze factories, with the comparable yield of one petroleum derivative plant" (Duncan, 2000). The effectiveness is the undeniable contrast for atomic vitality and wind vitality. All in all, atomic vitality and wind control vitality are both have unique and comparative property. The likeness is them two are not item the awful for condition gas. The atomic vitality is high effectiveness vitality, it cost less source to make more vitality; Even however, after parting, it would deliver squander, which is perilous the wash, it is threat. Besides, the breeze vitality is effectiveness is excessively low and the geological restriction is a major issue. As I would like to think, the atomic vitality power can be the mainstream to use in future, in light of the fact that atomic is more effectiveness, the waste issue will with the social advancement to determine.>GET ANSWER