Cellular Streaming is the process of a cell guiding organelles and metabolites to a determined destination
within the cell where it is needed. In Chara cells, Streaming is facilitated by the motor protein myosin. When
chara’s cell wall is damaged, it stops streaming by deactivating myosin through a kinase mediated
phosphorylation. This kinase is activated when excess calcium binds to it. In this lab, we will be observing what
level of calcium ions are needed to stop cellular streaming when chara is exposed to a damaging stimulus.
In order to see what concentration of calcium is needed to activate this kinase, chara cells will be placed in four
different solutions that vary in there levels of calcium concentration. Then streaming will be observed under a
dissecting microscope where a voltage is applied to damage the cell wall to initiate the flow of calcium into the
cell. The observable halt of streaming after electrical stimulation will be used to determine if solution’s calcium
concentration is sufficent to activate kinases that deactivate myosin. The use of electrcity to increase calcium
concentration and halt cellular streaming is called EC-coupling.
the emphasis on standardised networking across schools with libraries of curated content – essentially the model we have implemented in Moscow. As far as resources are concerned, the big demand is not only for content, but comprehensive guidance on teaching the content – so that each learning resource comes with instructions and examples of ‘how to teach’. This is especially important in developing countries where the teachers’ knowledge and skills are low. Online teacher communities will continue to become more and more important as centres for the sharing of resources, practice and mutual support. Subject-wise, although traditional emphasis has always been on STEM subjects, the overriding priority for education systems is, and will continue to be, literacy. In most countries Technical and Vocational Education will become increasingly important, especially as economies move from the production of simple commodities (agriculture, raw materials) to complex (manufactured goods, technology and services). The biggest challenge for TVE from a teaching and learning perspective is assessment – how do we define competencies and skills in this sector, and how do we assess and certify them to international standards? Technology that allows for the assessment of complex skills both in the classroom and onsite (through mobile devices) would be extremely valuable. There is also an opportunity to use A.I. for this, as it will allow for the assessment of intricate tasks and projects beyond simple testing. We are seeing a move away from high stakes international testing (such as PISA, TIMS etc.) and the use of statistics and Big Data in education. There has been little evidence to date that these systems are useful to course correct or inform policy and practice. Despite the efforts of bodies like the OECD these tests struggle to assess the complex competencies and skills that will increasingly be needed over the next few years. While they have certain political currency, the impact on classroom practice appears to be largely negative as teachers are under increasing pressure to compile data, which detracts from teaching itself, and teach to the test. National boards, like OFSTED in the UK, are now moving away fr>GET ANSWER