What are the challenges of assessing fluency in students who appear to be comprehending the text but struggle to read aloud?
How would you use journaling in ELA instruction and assessment? Justify your choice with three examples.
In recent years, there has been a deeper understanding of queer youth cultures, with society becoming more accepting. However, there is still stigmatisation towards LGBT youth which often leads to them creating their own subcultures which can be a form of resistance against dominant cultures. Queer theory is a movement away from the idea that there are just ‘men’ and ‘women’ in society today and that there is now a wider range of sexualities and genders which are more fluid (Saunders, 2017). Over the years, subcultures have had a variety of definitions and been the subject to change. Subcultures are groups of people who tend to have something in common with each other, which is often what distinguishes them from other groups within society (Hall and Jefferson, 2012). Foucault suggests that sexuality is not a natural feature of human life but a constructed category of experience which has historical, social and cultural, rather than biological origins. He highlighted the crucial role of institutions and discourses in the formation of sexuality and was concerned with how sexuality functions with society (Foucault and Hurley, 1990). The Chicago School of Sociology built the foundations for subcultural theory and analysis and were interested in making sense of the groups cultures and considered the city a social laboratory. The focus was to carry out detailed ethnographic work and using participant observation to collect rich qualitative data. One of the major works to come from the Chicago school is the idea of ‘human ecology’ which suggests that the city is an ecological organism in which different groups are competing for resources and in society these subcultures have their own belief system. The Zonal Hypothesis provided an explanation of urban development, with the city evolving through concentric circles with each layer representing a different circle of social and cultural life. Burgess constructed a social map of the city to provide a deeper understanding of the social organisation of the city in which can be understood on a sociological basis; he suggested that the heart of the city is business district which is characterised by a small residential population due to high property value and zone of transition is characterised by residential deterioration and an area in which there is constant change, with th>GET ANSWER