1. Give one (1) example of innate behavior and one (1) example of learned behavior. (2 pts).

2. Provide the four (4) Tinbergen’s question for the study of animal behavior. (1 pt).

3. Explain the difference between proximate mechanisms and functional causations (2 pts).

4. As a young researcher, you have been asked to test for the existence of releasers (e.g. Tinbergen’s experiment on the belly coloration in sticklebacks). Describe, in your own words, how you would experimentally address this question? (2 pts).

5. Which one (1) of the three (3) foundations of behaviour permits a horizontal transmission of information (i.e. between individuals of the same generation)? (1 pt).
a. Natural selection.
b. Individual learning.
c. Social learning.

6. As you are observing Gulf menhaden swimming in large and dense schools in the salt marsh behind LUMCON’s marine station, you are wondering about the costs and benefits of group living in animals. Give three (3) example of potential costs and three (3) examples of benefits. (2 pts).

7. Explain why we most often observe animal groups bigger than the predicted optimal group size. (2 pts).

(30 points total) Student’s Name: ___________________________

8. Define “behavioral plasticity” (1pt). Provide an example of plastic behavior in a coastal/estuarine organism. (1pt). What kind of experimental test would you conduct to test whether an animal species exhibit plastic behavior? (1pt).

9. How does natural selection act to shape the dynamics of predator-prey interactions? (2 pts).

10. Explain how the properties of the environment (e.g. water turbidity) can have profound effect on the safety of group-living animals. (2pts).

11. Give two (2) examples for the Handicap principle. (2 pts).

12. Inter- or intrasexual selection?: (2 pts).
a. Ornaments and weapons in males:
b. Spermatic competition:
c. Nest defense:
d. Pre-copulation present:
13. Explain the origin of sexual selection. (2 pts).

14. How does kin selection operate? (2 pts).

15. This time you have been asked to help developing a research program aimed at mitigating the negative effect of lionfish, an invasive predatory species in many coastal systems in the United States, on resident fish species. Describe a possible Behavior-based management approach. (3 pts).

16. Describe the word fecund. (1 pt) If an organism displays high fecundity what does this mean? (1 pt)

17. List and describe two reasons why capture fishery production is plateauing worldwide (3 pts).

18. What is a TED and what does it do? (1 pt)

19. List two purposes of aquaculture other than the production of food. (1 pt)

20. List and describe two concerns and two benefits of aquaculture (2 pt). In your opinion, are farmed fisheries a good or bad idea? (1 pt)

21. Describe an adaptation to life in the deep sea and what benefit or benefits it provides. (2 pt)

22. Could Antarctic icefish that have evolved the loss of red blood cells survive in a tropical warm environment? Why or why not? (2 pt)

23. Why do coral reefs display such high species diversity? (2 pt)

24. Describe two environmental parameters that display seasonal variability in Terrebonne Bay, LA. (2 pt)

a. For each variable above, explain one behavioral or biological effect these fluctuations have on resident organisms (2 pt)

25. Who would handle temperature fluctuations better, an organism living at a temperate latitude or an organism living at a polar latitude? Why? (2 pt)

26. Species in the tropics are more susceptible to the negative consequences of the warming accompanying global climate change. Why? (2 pt)

27. If a shark swims from full strength seawater at 1000 mOsm into brackish water at 700 mOsm what will happen to the osmolarity of its muscle tissue? (1 pt)

a. If a fish swims from full strength seawater at 1000 mOsm into brackish water at 700 mOsm what will happen to the osmolarity of its muscle tissue? (1 pt)

28. Describe what happens to an organism’s metabolic rate above and below its critical oxygen partial pressure (Pcrit). (2 pt)

29. Describe two effects of ocean acidification on calcification. (2 pt)

(20 points total) Student’s Name: ___________________________

30. Which two microbial processes would be the most important for natural bioremediation of hydrocarbons within seafloor sediments? Circle the two that apply. (2 points)

a) Oxygen respiration
b) Methanogenesis
c) Denitrification
d) Sulfate reduction
e) Iron reduction

31. Which microbial process is performed by bacteria only? (2 points)

a) Oxygen respiration
b) Aerobic methanotrophy
c) Denitrification
d) Sulfate reduction

32. If I add fertilizer (N and P) to sediments with oil contamination what type of remediation is that? (2 points)

a) Bioaugmentation
b) Natural attenuation
c) Engineered remediation
d) Intrinsic
e) Biostimulation

33. In the picture below identify the zones where aerobic methanotrophy (1), methanogenesis (2), and anaerobic methane oxidation (3) would occur by writing the name of the major electron acceptor beside the number corresponding to the process. Use the figure to find the electron acceptor (6 points)
(1) _________________
(2) _________________
(3) _________________




Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.