1. Give one (1) example of innate behavior and one (1) example of learned behavior. (2 pts).
2. Provide the four (4) Tinbergen’s question for the study of animal behavior. (1 pt).
3. Explain the difference between proximate mechanisms and functional causations (2 pts).
4. As a young researcher, you have been asked to test for the existence of releasers (e.g. Tinbergen’s experiment on the belly coloration in sticklebacks). Describe, in your own words, how you would experimentally address this question? (2 pts).
5. Which one (1) of the three (3) foundations of behaviour permits a horizontal transmission of information (i.e. between individuals of the same generation)? (1 pt).
a. Natural selection.
b. Individual learning.
c. Social learning.
6. As you are observing Gulf menhaden swimming in large and dense schools in the salt marsh behind LUMCON’s marine station, you are wondering about the costs and benefits of group living in animals. Give three (3) example of potential costs and three (3) examples of benefits. (2 pts).
7. Explain why we most often observe animal groups bigger than the predicted optimal group size. (2 pts).
(30 points total) Student’s Name: ___________________________
8. Define “behavioral plasticity” (1pt). Provide an example of plastic behavior in a coastal/estuarine organism. (1pt). What kind of experimental test would you conduct to test whether an animal species exhibit plastic behavior? (1pt).
9. How does natural selection act to shape the dynamics of predator-prey interactions? (2 pts).
10. Explain how the properties of the environment (e.g. water turbidity) can have profound effect on the safety of group-living animals. (2pts).
11. Give two (2) examples for the Handicap principle. (2 pts).
12. Inter- or intrasexual selection?: (2 pts).
a. Ornaments and weapons in males:
b. Spermatic competition:
c. Nest defense:
d. Pre-copulation present:
13. Explain the origin of sexual selection. (2 pts).
14. How does kin selection operate? (2 pts).
15. This time you have been asked to help developing a research program aimed at mitigating the negative effect of lionfish, an invasive predatory species in many coastal systems in the United States, on resident fish species. Describe a possible Behavior-based management approach. (3 pts).
16. Describe the word fecund. (1 pt) If an organism displays high fecundity what does this mean? (1 pt)
17. List and describe two reasons why capture fishery production is plateauing worldwide (3 pts).
18. What is a TED and what does it do? (1 pt)
19. List two purposes of aquaculture other than the production of food. (1 pt)
20. List and describe two concerns and two benefits of aquaculture (2 pt). In your opinion, are farmed fisheries a good or bad idea? (1 pt)
21. Describe an adaptation to life in the deep sea and what benefit or benefits it provides. (2 pt)
22. Could Antarctic icefish that have evolved the loss of red blood cells survive in a tropical warm environment? Why or why not? (2 pt)
23. Why do coral reefs display such high species diversity? (2 pt)
24. Describe two environmental parameters that display seasonal variability in Terrebonne Bay, LA. (2 pt)
a. For each variable above, explain one behavioral or biological effect these fluctuations have on resident organisms (2 pt)
25. Who would handle temperature fluctuations better, an organism living at a temperate latitude or an organism living at a polar latitude? Why? (2 pt)
26. Species in the tropics are more susceptible to the negative consequences of the warming accompanying global climate change. Why? (2 pt)
27. If a shark swims from full strength seawater at 1000 mOsm into brackish water at 700 mOsm what will happen to the osmolarity of its muscle tissue? (1 pt)
a. If a fish swims from full strength seawater at 1000 mOsm into brackish water at 700 mOsm what will happen to the osmolarity of its muscle tissue? (1 pt)
28. Describe what happens to an organism’s metabolic rate above and below its critical oxygen partial pressure (Pcrit). (2 pt)
29. Describe two effects of ocean acidification on calcification. (2 pt)
(20 points total) Student’s Name: ___________________________
30. Which two microbial processes would be the most important for natural bioremediation of hydrocarbons within seafloor sediments? Circle the two that apply. (2 points)
a) Oxygen respiration
d) Sulfate reduction
e) Iron reduction
31. Which microbial process is performed by bacteria only? (2 points)
a) Oxygen respiration
b) Aerobic methanotrophy
d) Sulfate reduction
32. If I add fertilizer (N and P) to sediments with oil contamination what type of remediation is that? (2 points)
b) Natural attenuation
c) Engineered remediation
33. In the picture below identify the zones where aerobic methanotrophy (1), methanogenesis (2), and anaerobic methane oxidation (3) would occur by writing the name of the major electron acceptor beside the number corresponding to the process. Use the figure to find the electron acceptor (6 points)
Regular over the world we are being advised to be a decent individual, yet what does that extremely mean? Is a decent individual in America the same as a decent individual in socialist North Korea? I say yes; a great individual is dissimilar to the great subject whose ideals is pertinent to the administration in which they live; the great individual is a decent individual regardless of the administration while the great national is just illustrative of that which the state considers best. The great man can be great anyplace on the grounds that he takes after goodness, and discovers joy in that prudence. To outline this point I will initially characterize the great man then the terrible administration, lastly how a decent man fits into the awful administration. The Good Man Socrates, while under trial, clarified his meaning of a decent individual in invalidation of the charge that he was embarrassed about seeking after a risky occupation that had the likelihood of death. He reacted "You are incorrect, sir, in the event that you feel that a man who is any great whatsoever should consider the danger of last chance; he should look to this exclusive in his activities, regardless of whether what he does is correct or wrong, whether he is acting like a decent or an awful man"  Here we have an extremely straightforward clarification of the great man, he who does not fret about trivial individual needs but rather just whether his activities are great and just. Aristotle defines out an unmistakable limit between what he thinks about a decent man and a decent national. For Aristotle the great man is the man that demonstrations and lives idealistically and gets joy from that righteousness. Also, the great native acts to the best excellence of the state and every one of these things are very discrete, "The great national need not of need have the temperance which makes a decent man"  The partition is plainly clear, the way that what makes a decent native does not qualify somebody to be a decent individual. So being a decent individual does not mean you need to by affiliation be a decent national they are two particularly unique states, it is just in the best of administrations that the great individual is additionally the great resident. The idea of political decide is that control of those "comparative in stock and free"  As Aristotle contends if the goodness of a national is the ability to manage and be administered thus, at that point the excellence of the great man is additionally to have this limit in the best of administrations. The positive qualities in any creature or plant is the same as it is for people: that to be and act in congruity with the ideals of that species. In a way this is a human taking part in that which is most human, to act in agreement with soundness and uprightness. The positive qualities in acting with the ethicalness of a human is the flawlessness of that which must be depicted objectively such things as affection and equity. To act unto these things is to act with excellence yet there additionally stands breaking points to everything. To act with excessively incredible or too little accentuation in any demonstration is to disturb adjust and pulls the great man from his way of righteousness, a lot of adoration is fixation, too little hate either outrageous is unfortunate to the great man. The great man lives by the Golden Mean what isn't too in overabundance in either heading. To unite the meaning of a decent man, Socrates says he is a man who dependably thinks about his activities and acts in a decent and just way. Aristotle says a decent man acts unto righteousness and determines his bliss and joy from that temperance. So we have a man who is reasonable, prudent, and just. This man should now fit into a degenerate administration, an administration that does not take after every one of those things which make him a decent man. The Bad Regime There were six distinct classifications in which all administrations were set as characterized by both Socrates and Aristotle, those of oppression, government, theocracy, gentry, majority rules system and country. Of these administrations oppression, theocracy and majority rules system were all contrary and degenerate administrations on the grounds that the administering body whether it be a solitary individual, little gathering or the numerous separately just were controlling to their greatest advantage and not to the advantage of all. In the great administrations it is those same types of overseeing bodies yet they represent in light of a legitimate concern for the state all in all. Of the awful administrations Aristotle had proclaimed that oppression was the most unfortunate state as the nationals were decreased to just slaves. In a domineering government the represented are not taken care of but rather just used to encourage the objectives of the pioneer. The following two are characterized in a comparative way "men managing by reason of their riches, regardless of whether they be few or many,"  for a theocracy and characterizing a vote based system as "where the poor run the show."  To Aristotle a government was a contorted debasement of the great administration privileged, in the theocracy it isn't that couple of men administer it is that it is the well off class that standards making a state in which all influence dwells in the high society. .>GET ANSWER