Discuss at least 1 of the following 3 videos from the module lectures, by applying the meanings from the video to postcolonial theory, and to international business practice.

· Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s talk/transcript, ‘The Danger of a Single Story’: https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story?language=en

· Momondo, The DNA Journey: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tyaEQEmt5ls

· What happens when we stop putting people in boxes? –Tv2Denmark:

(1) provide an overview of the purpose and key points in the video(s). In so doing, do not just quote randomly from the videos, but explain in a coherent, analytic manner, the meanings that you derive from the purpose of these talks/demonstrations.

This part, together with the Introduction, should be no more than about 1/3 of your total essay length.

(2) discuss how these videos bring to life key concepts from postcolonial theory. You may refer to our lecture exercises, seminar readings, and many additional readings on postcolonial theory on the Reading List, as available resources.

(3) Consider how these postcolonial concepts, which come to life in various ways in the video(s), may guide your approach to international business.

Parts (2) and (3) should be approximately 2/3 of your total essay, including the Conclusion.

Option 2

(1) Discuss examples of marginalised experiences of international management and business, specifically from articles/chapters on the Reading List and discussions in Lecture/seminars. Remember that we have talked about marginalised experiences as those experiences that have been overlooked, misunderstood, and/or silenced in mainstream coverage of international business.

Make connections to the theory that is discussed in the readings about these experiences (in other words, don’t simply describe the experience, but its importance within the theoretical frameworks/purposes of the article).

Part (1) should be approximately ½ of the essay, including the Introduction.

(2) Taking as a starting point these specific marginalised experiences, how might we imagine alternative ways of doing international business? For instance, for marginalised individuals who are exploited or ignored, how might placing their voices and experiences at the centre of debates shift our thinking about international business?

Option 3

(1) Outline an essentialist approach to understanding one of the following categories: group, culture, nation, identity, gender.

Critically compare this to a social constructionist (or non-essentialist, e.g. Nathan 2015) account of the same category.

Part (1) should be approximately ½ of the essay, including the Introduction.

(2) discuss the practical consequences of using essentialist vs social constructionist (or non-essentialist) approaches to understanding international business and management?

To support your discussion, you may contrast the culture model of Hofstede, to the critical models of Venaik and Brewer (2016), or to Nathan (2015). [continue on next page…]


Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.