To what extent does China fashion companies use foreign brand to achieve success?
Crew Resource Management (CRM) can be defined as a set of procedures and training system which is meant to mitigate the impact of human errors on flight. The main aim of CRM is to improve air safety through reduction of human errors (Aviation Knowledge, 2010). It is mainly focused on human factors like interpersonal communication, leadership, and decision making process in the cockpit, which have been found to be major factors contributing to aircraft accidents. CRM concept was born out a NASA worship that was held in 1979 but since then, it has evolved in different ways being expanded to include more crews. CRM mainly encompass a wide range of knowledge, skills, and attitudes, which are major human factors during flight (Aviation Knowledge, 2010). It encompass a wide range of factors like communication, situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, teamwork, and many others which are pertinent to cabin crew during flight. These factor are not new in aviation but they have been recognized for a long time since aviation began and have been expressed in general terms like ‘airmanship’, ‘captaincy’, ‘crew co-operation’, and many others but have never been given the needed attention until recently when human errors were recognized as major factor in aviation safety. Putting into consideration all these aspects, CRM can therefore be defined as a management system which make use the resources available, mainly equipments, procedures and people, in order to enhance safety and efficiency during flight (The Royal Aeronautical Society, 2010). CRM is not concerned much with the technical knowledge and skills in flight operation but rather it aims and reducing human errors and enhancing human response in case of safety breach during flight (The Royal Aeronautical Society, 2010). CRM is therefore concerned with cognitive and interpersonal skills which are necessary to manage flight. It targets to harness cognitive and interpersonal skills of the crew to enhance safety and efficiency. Cognitive skills encompass the mental processes which are used to gain situational awareness, which are important in solving problems and taking immediate decisions. On the other hand, interpersonal skills mainly encompass communication and other behavior skills that enhance teamwork. In aviation, these skills mainly intercept and overlap now and then, together with the technical skills. CRM and aviation accidents The main reason behind introduction of CRM was in response to the rising number of accidents which were attributed to human error (The Royal Aeronautical Society, 2010). During 1950s, there was introduction of turbojets that were considered more reliant and consequently, there was reduction in the number of aircraft accidents that were attributed to technical failure. The problem of air flames and engine failure slowly diminished with coming of more reliable jets and the number of accidents reduced. Between 1959 and 1989, more than 85% of all accidents were attributed to flight crew errors while only less than 10% could be attributed to technical condition (Aviation Knowledge, 2010; Wiener, 1993). Less than 5% could be attributed to maintenance, weather, airport condition, and other causes (Wiener, 1993). From 1950s, number of human error aviation accidents worldwide rose sharply and this became a major concern for most countries. With recognition of human performance problem, there was growing interest to understand the meaning of “pilot error”, which becam>GET ANSWER