1)Evangelism and violence(150)
we focused on the manner in which violence was connected with evangelism in the fifteenth century. Pope Nicholas V argued in his papal bull of 1455, “Romanus Pontifex” that he desired to see the salvation of all people. He wrote that he was bestowing “suitable favors and special graces” on Christian rulers who sought “not only to restrain the savage excesses of the Saracens and of other infidels, enemies of the Christian name, but also for the defense and increase of the faith to vanquish them and their kingdoms and habitations, though situated in the remotest parts unknown to us, and subject them to their own temporal dominion…”
Violence was part of evangelism, or of bringing people in to Christ.
The message of the Virgin of Guadalupe that Juan Diego brought before the bishop in 1531 in Mexico is an extremely important example of this other voice. In the vision she tells Diego that she hears the weeping and sorrow of her brown-skinned children, and will remedy and alleviate all their suffering and misfortune. The Virgin is addressing the violence that followers of her Son have unleashed, and she says that she will end it.
Let’s carry on this conversation and make the connections with today. Can you draw comparisons between the sixteenth century and today, on both sides of the issue? Cite specific examples from the news representing both sides. Bring this conversation up to date.
2) You are going write about what Calvin had to say about justification (200 words)
What is justification? Remember the exact term might not be immediately used, but the broader concept is clear: salvation, being saved, getting saved, being forgiven, getting into heaven in the afterlife, being part of “the elect” or the community of those who are redeemed.
3) A millennial vision to create a perfect Christian society on earth (150 words)
This week’s class discussion began with the millennial vision of the Spanish Franciscans in New Mexico at the beginning of the 1600s. The Franciscans believed that by converting to Christian faith the First Nations peoples whom the Spanish called “Pueblos,” they would create a perfect Christian society on earth, and that this would in turn usher in the millennial (1,000 years) kingdom of Christ The English Puritans in New England had a similar millennial vision of creating a perfect society. Their initial vision was for their purifying work then to spread back across the Atlantic to reform the Church of England, which was the focus of their millennial expectations. I quoted the title of Perry Miller’s classic text from 1952: these Puritans were on an “Errand into the Wilderness.”
We then looked at the text of “Model of Christian Charity,” the sermon that John Winthrop preached aboard the Arabella in 1630 as the Puritans were first landing in Massachusetts. Winthrop called upon the settlers to practice Christian charity toward one another “… that the Lord our God may blesse us in the land whither we goe to possesse it…” These settlers, said Winthrop, were to be “a Citty upon a Hill” with the eyes of all people upon them. If they failed in their mission, their prayers would be turned into curses and God would turn away from them.
This Puritan vision in effect called upon its hearers to become a part of a great Christian redemptive drama that was expected to affect all people on earth (and even the earth itself). The notion of being a City on a Hill took root in New England and became part of the fabric of the society. As the eastern colonies grew into a nation, the vision grew as well, providing the religious foundation for what eventually became the notion of US exceptionalism, “Manifest Destiny,” or what Ernest Lee Tuvson called the idea of the USA being a “Redeemer Nation” (see Ernest Lee Tuvson, Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America’s Millennial Role [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968]).
4) What is enlighrtning? (150 words)
In class on March 6 we opened our discussion with a portion of René Descartes’ meditation that led him to cogito ergo sum (“I think therefore I am”). This for me is the methodological key to the modern European Enlightenment. I called it the “turn to the human subject” that placed the thinking human self (the cogito) at the center of the universe (“anthropocentrism”). Within this new framework a new sovereign being emerged – the thinking individual. Accompanying this philosophical turn was a new political project that fostered the freedom of individual actors especially in the economic realm. This was a critical factor in the development of modern capitalism. In this regard the European Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries bequeathed to us much that we hold to be of fundamental value regarding human rights and responsibilities in the modern world. I also argued in class that the subject or “self” who emerged from this philosophical movement was white, European, male, heterosexual , and Christian (or post-Christian). This same Enlightenment turned out to be deeply racist, sexist, and Eurocentric in its historical vision.
Let’s carry on the conversation in Groups by picking up with Kant’s essay, “What is Enlightenment
5) Awakenings (200 words)
The discussion in class focused on the evangelical revival or “Awakening” that began in Europe and eventually spread to other parts of the world through Protestant missions. If the European Enlightenment was about opening up the mind (“dare to think”), the Awakenings were concerned with the warming of the heart (think of John Wesley and his heart “strangely warmed”). One of the most important outcomes of the awakenings was the renewal of worship.
Presentation The unrest of cooking has advanced hugely so has the strategies for cooking as well .Cooking has been rehearsed since ages. Prior the antiquated man ate just crude nourishment, once accidently a bit of meat fell into the fire and it got cooked. The man ate the piece and enjoyed it. In this way the way toward cooking started and began advancing. Cooking nourishment is critical in light of the fact that it makes the sustenance simple to process, cooking enhances the appearances enhance shading surface and taste of sustenance, it additionally changes up the feast, cooking encourages the nourishment to remain longer and last and the most essential is cooking makes the sustenance safe. (Home science , 2014) Cooking includes learning of fixings and additionally gear, the aptitudes and methods likewise capacity to design and sort out nourishment planning inside time requirements. Not to overlook the great techniques for cooking are far superior and also more advantageous as contrast with new strategies like microwave. (Home science , 2014) Cooking procedures There are some sustenance things which have heaps of dampness in them like vegetables which are verdant like spinach and fenugreek. These things are cooked utilizing method that makes utilization of this dampness. Be that as it may, nourishment things like rice, wheat and heartbeats are relatively low in dampness content in this way these fixings are cooked by including additional water(moisture). There are likewise strategies where no water is engaged with the way toward cooking; in truth these techniques assist the sustenance with remaining fresh on finishing. Subsequently the strategies for cooking are characterized into the accompanying: (Nestle proficient nutrinal, 2014) Cooking by sodden warmth: The strategy incorporates bubbling, stewing/stewing, steaming weight cooker, poaching and microwave cooking. Cooking by dry warmth: This strategy incorporates preparing, simmering and flame broiling. Cooking by searing in oil or ghee: Includes strategies like profound browning, shallow fricasseeing or sautéed and blend broiling. (Settle proficient nutrinal, 2014) Bubbling: It is the strategy in which the nourishment is cooked in adequate amount of water. For instance potatoes, hard vegetables like cauliflower, carrots broccoli and that's only the tip of the iceberg, eggs, rice and heartbeats. Vegetables, for example, green peas and green beans are bubbled by extra of little amount of water though while cooking rice and different heartbeats expansive measure of water is expected to cook. This is on the grounds that vegetables as of now contain higher water content. There are some essential focuses which will be remembered while bubbling which are right off the bat heat up the water and afterward put the nourishment furthermore the water should cover the sustenance completely. Don't over bubble nourishment longer than required and once it is delicate and delicate take it off from the fire as though the sustenance for a really long time it loses its shape and shading. Ultimately overcooking likewise obliterates its nutritive esteem. (The day by day supper, 2014) Stewing/Stewing: Stewing is where the nourishment is cooked in little amount while a little measure of water is kept underneath breaking point for quite a while. In the wake of bubbling begins the fire is stewed and the sustenance is permitted to cook gradually. When it is cooked it is served together with the fluid. The benefit of this cooking method is that the juices of the sustenance are held and additionally the nourishment tastes great. (The day by day dinner, 2014) Steaming: It is where the sustenance is cooked with the warmth created from water vapors. It additionally abbreviates the season of cooking and furthermore preserves the nutritive esteem, shading, flavor and attractiveness of nourishment. Steamed nourishment is likewise light and simple to process. These sorts of nourishment are particularly useful for individuals who are frail or wiped out and furthermore useful for seniors and youthful youngsters. (The day by day dinner, 2014) Weight cooking: the way toward cooking in an exceptional kind of utensil which licenses cooking with loads of steam under a specific weight. These cookers are made of steel or with a blend of aluminum and different metals and can hold up under high weight. The steam which is created is bound inside the cooker in this manner expanding the weight and temperature in excess of 100 degree Celsius. A wide range of heartbeats, rice, and meat are cooked well under strain cooker in most limited conceivable time. Points of interest of this sort of cooking are that it murders a wide range of microorganisms and henceforth the nourishment is protected to eat. Quickest strategy for cooking very nearly 33% time contrast with bubbling. It likewise spares gas. It is imperative to inundate sustenance in water while getting ready and this decrease the loss of dissolvable vitamins and also minerals. (The day by day supper, 2014) Poaching: It is likewise a sort of soggy warmth cooking strategy which includes cooking by submerging in a fluid like water, stock, wine and that's just the beginning. It is separated from different strategies like bubbling and stews as the temperature is generally low which makes especially appropriate for sustenance like fish and eggs. (Settle proficient nutrinal, 2014) Microwave cooking: Cooking with electromagnet waves, either with or without expansion of fluid. The sustenance can be cooked and furthermore can be given dryness just on the off chance that it joined with dry warmth technique, for example, flame broiling. Essentially microwave is utilized for warm the sustenance. (Settle proficient nutrinal, 2014) Heating: The technique in which the nourishment is set up by relegating it inside a warmed shut box called a broiler. The air inside the broiler get hot because of the fire which is lit at its base or with power and the nourishment gets readied with the hot air when put inside the stove. The sustenance which is cooked utilizing this kind of strategy changes up the plate. (Home science , 2014) Broiling: One more strategy for cooking sustenance with the assistance of dry warmth is simmering. While broiling the nourishment is put specifically on an iron and cooked. Vegetables like potatoes, eggplants are cooked so as grains like labyrinth and chickpeas. The nourishment is more delicious when arranged by this strategy. It likewise adds a change to the dinner. (The every day supper, 2014) Flame broiling: A strategy for cooking over gleaming flame and more employments of roundabout warmth and is slower contrast with simmering. The nourishment is hung on an iron network over the fire. The matrices are brushed with oil to abstain from staying and can be warmed by charcoal, gas or even power these days. The nourishment which is readied gives an unmistakable flavor. (The every day dinner, 2014) Profound browning: It is where the nourishment is totally submerged in hot fat like oil. It is typically arranged in profound fryer mechanically. It is characterized into dry cooking as there is no water utilized likewise the time taken in cooking this technique is additionally speedy. Shallow fricasseeing: In shallow browning the sustenance isn't totally submerged however just a piece of it is submerged in fats like oil/margarine. The benefit of shallow singing is that the nourishment life remains longer contrast with profound broiling. How sustenance cooks Fast development of atoms warms the nourishment. The development is fast to the point that their temperature rises. There is three different ways to cook the sustenance Conduction Convection Radiation Conduction-is the point at which the sustenance is in coordinate contact of the warmth source. Cooking in a container is conduction process. Warmth is exchanged from burner to the container, and after that it is going to the sustenance. First the surface of the sustenance winds up hot then the inside. Warmth goes from the middle by dampness and fats. Convection-is the procedure in which the warmth is conveyed to the nourishment by some source like air, water and so on. Cooking nourishment in the stove is convection cooking. Gas barbecues are the ideal case of convection cooking. A convection broiler has a fan that streams the warmth in the stove. The moving warmth cooks the sustenance more quickly than the still warmth. Convection strategy for cooking cooks the nourishment 25%to 30% speedier. Radiation-is the procedure in which the sustenance is cooked by the vitality changed by floods of warmth. For e.g. put a sustenance on a holder and hold it to the side of the fire, the nourishment will be cooked utilizing radiation process. The charcoal barbecues works with radiation cooking. Excitation-is microwave cooking. Microwave penetrates the sustenance and beats the particles inside the nourishment and makes it warm without warming the air around it. Enlistment stove tops works under acceptance cooking strategy. Enlistment cooktops or cooking vessels must be made of solid metal or tempered steel. The component electronic charges the loop that produces high recurrence electromagnetic field. The field vibrates the base of the vessel and sets up a coursing current that produces warm. The warmth at that point exchanged to nourishment. The principle advantage of acceptance is that, it gives quicker and reliable warming than different techniques. The acceptance consequently close down if there is no compartment. It is anything but difficult to clean as a result of level cooking surface.it is more vitality productive than other fire burners as it permits moment control of cooking powers. Different strategies for cooking that utilizations fire have higher misfortune to encompassing while enlistment specifically warms the pot. Propelled cooking strategies Cooking is the technique of changing the science of sustenance by exchanging vitality to the nourishment to make it protected and edible and to get the coveted flavor, surface and nourishment. Culinary hardware's and actualizes have voyage far from antiquated occasions when the main medium to cook is start shooting to the advanced strategies for cooking. Stoves were among the main progress brought by development. Early broiler were intended to trap the warmth in the dividers of oven.in twentieth century, innovators had created gas and electric stoves that permit far more prominent control of warmth. However, for all the advanced highlights on the present stove ovens, constrained convection, self-cleaning cycles and so on - despite everything they take a shot at the rule of controlling warmth. Another essential part of cooking is mugginess. The capacity to control dampness, both outside the nourishment and inside, is the characterizing contrast that set present day broiler innovation apart from prior strategies. Water-vapor broilers and combi stoves control the water substance of the warmed air; microwaves misuse the dampness substance of the sustenance to warm it. They both are the ideal cases of present day methodologies of the history's most old apparatus>GET ANSWER