respond to the following in 150 words or more.
There are several treatment options for individuals who have suffered from a disaster situation whether man-made, natural, or a hybrid of each. Different treatment options could include therapy-based options, such as, cognitive behavior therapy and mindfulness therapy. There is also a pharmacological intervention and antidepressant therapy. There are several factors that need to be taken into consideration after a disaster event with individuals who are trying to cope with the situation. Some of these factors are the nature of the disaster, the severity or frequency of the disaster, the loss or trauma manifested from the disaster, the social and environmental issues, support systems, stress reaction, coping with dramatic change, the physiological issues, along with memory impairment, and different emotional issues such as depression and increased anxiety. With each factor being identified, coping can be difficult and should have a set plan of action due to each individual’s coping behaviors being different.
The most popular and or appropriate choice for individuals struggling from PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder, are the different treatment options noted above, cognitive behavior therapy, mindfulness therapy, pharmacological intervention, and antidepressant therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy is the most commonly used out of each of the treatment options for PTSD. Cognitive behavior therapy is used to help individuals stop identifying negative thinking and or self-blame. Cognitive therapy’s main goal is to redirect and or manage negative thoughts by recalling the experience and understanding where the associated blame is going. This type of therapy allows patients to feel self-aware and allows them to feel more in control of their thoughts. Mindfulness therapy is similar to cognitive behavioral therapy. Relaxation techniques are used in order to slow down or calm an individual’s mind. When a patient relaxes and reduces their anxiety, they are able to dig deeper into their mind in order to draw out different thought patterns. By doing this, the patient begins to diminish their anxiety and push out negative thoughts or self-doubt or self-blame like cognitive therapy. Pharmacological intervention is not only beneficial for those suffering with PTSD, but it can help in the early onset of PTSD after a disaster event. Different drugs are used with pharmacological intervention that block the glutamatergic activity and the glucocorticoid receptor prior to trauma. Most therapies that involve drugs are dependent on the individual being treated and their emotional response. Antidepressant therapy was most widely used to treat patients with PSTD, however, treatment throughout the years with this therapy has been inconsistent. Although antidepressant therapy gives an immediate relief to its patients, there are long term effects such as sleep issues, issues with cognitive behavior, balance issues, and reduced awareness to include own mortality, (American Public University). With these issues and the unpredictability of this type of therapy, PTSD should be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy first in order to start treatment in a more beneficial manner.
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.