Cognitive economy as it applies to the semantic network approach.

1.Discuss mental rotation experimental results and mental-scanning experimental results that support the idea that the spatial experience for both imagery and perception match the layout of the actual stimulus.

  1. Describe the prototype approach to categorization. Define prototype and give examples for the category of “clothing.” Mention items that are high and low on prototypicality in the clothing category. Finally, describe the experiments that Rosch and her colleagues did to demonstrate the connections between prototypicality and behavior.
  2. Compare and contrast the standard object for the prototype approach to categorization and for the exemplar approach to categorization. Include descriptions of how the standards can lead to similar as well as different categorization judgments.
  3. Explain cognitive economy as it applies to the semantic network approach. How are properties or characteristics represented within the semantic network? How is category relation represented within the semantic network? Explain how atypical category members are represented.
  4. Explain priming in terms of spreading activation. Using a description of a lexical decision task, give an example of a prime-stimulus pair that would produce priming and another pair that would not. What do these priming effects tell us about categorization?
  5. Explain how learning occurs in a connectionist network. Describe the process of back propagation. How is the pattern of output activity in a network adjusted so that the output signal matches the correct signal for a given stimulus?
  6. Describe the spatial and propositional explanations of the mechanisms responsible for imagery. Also, explain how the propositional explanation would account for the results of Kosslyn’s island mental-scanning experiment.
  7. Much has been learned about imagery using physiological techniques. Explain how each of these techniques (brain imaging, removal of part of the brain, and single-neuron recordings) has demonstrated parallels between imagery and perception.
  8. Describe in detail two techniques that use imagery to improve memory. Explain the underlying principles that define why imagery works successfully as a memory enhancer.
  9. Describe the evidence showing that food cravings can be caused by visual imagery, as well as the evidence that nonfood imagery can decrease such cravings.

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