Cognitive Penetration and the El Greco Fallacy

What is the status of purported cases of cognitive penetration? Using the example of Levin and Banaji’s experiment about the perceived lightness of faces,
explain what cognitive penetration is and how it’s a plausible explanation of the effects found in this experiment. Next, explain the El Greco fallacy, how it
applies in this example, and what might be a better explanation instead of cognitive penetration. Is there anything Levin and Banaji can say in their defense?




Sample Solution