Identify an example , community-based participatory research (CBPR) or an example of a coalition/partnership, from the research literature. Describe the health issue being addressed, the interventions or strategies implemented, challenges, and successes noted by the authors. What were the benefits of using the approach used in the article? How do you think this approach could be successfully used to address another contemporary health concern?
We examine how gendered bodies are produced differently in routine performances and practices of modelling work, through various investments and techniques of the body (Mauss, 1973) and through particular embodied performances. Focusing on everyday transgressions does not mean shifting attention to individual performances. While performance assumes a voluntary subject, performativity denies voluntarism (Butler, 1994) although, in reality, this distinction blurs, as Lloyd (1999) argues, since all individual performances are preceded by, or predicated upon, performativity. Thus, to consider individual performances means considering how gender performativity is enacted in and through individual acts, not privileging the latter. Some performances may imply agency, as when models consciously attempt to produce a desired appearance, with styles of dressing and walking, in strategic hope of securing work. However, performativity refers to the fact that gendered subjectivity takes place within social contexts of gender and sexual inequality that exceed the individual. Models are always caught up in the unconscious displays of femininity and masculinity inextricably linked to (hetero)sexual desire. For the most part, these two are mutually reinforcing, although male models can and do step outside the heteronormative script, as we describe below. Data and Methodology This paper is based on two separate data sets of men and women working in the fashion modelling industry collected independently by each researcher with an oversampling on male models. Entwistle’s study consists of interviews with 25 male models between 2000 and 2001 in London and New York model agencies, and interviews with eight of their agents. Mears’ study, from 2005 to 2006, consists of 40 interviews with male and female models in New York and London, evenly split by gender and city. Mears also interviewed 24 bookers, seven accountants/business managers and two bookers’ assistants in New York and London. These interviews were supported by observations of models in situ by both Entwistle, during interviews with male models at their modelling agencies, and Mears, who worked as a fashion model. Models in this study ranged from 18 to 32 (women) and 18 to 44 (men); the mean age of male and female respondents was 26 and 23, respectively. Sixteen models had been modelling for three years or less, while just four had modelled for over ten years; the mean time of their participation in the modelling market was just under five years. While we have published on these two studies (Entwistle, 2002, 2004, 2009; Entwistle and Wissinger, 2006; Mears and Finlay, 2005; Mears, 2008, 2011; Godart and Mears, 2009), this paper brings both studies together for the first time in co>GET ANSWER