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Personal Growth Level 4
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f the recommended protective mechanisms for taurine, is it’s reaction with hypochlorous acid to produce taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) that is a strong anti-inflammatory factor. Hypochlorous acid is a reactive molecule in neutrophils and monocytes of mammalians that is produced through myeloperoxidase pathway (32, 33). Taurine chloramine negatively regulates the production of inflammatory proteins such as TNF-a and IL-6 by phagocytic cells. This process suppresses the inflammatory reaction and protects cells against cytotoxic and cytolytic activity of hypochlorous acid (34). IL-6 is an important inflammatory and immune response marker in central nervous system that was assessed in this trial. Early studies have shown that in patients with traumatic brain injury, IL-6 levels in CSF are significantly higher than plasma levels (35). In previous studies, taurine has significantly reduced IL-6 levels (29, 36-40). Similarly, the present study showed that taurine suppresses the elevated levels of IL-6 due to traumatic brain injury. Since astrocytes constitute the main source of IL-6, it is possible that taurine reduces IL-6 levels through reducing the activation of astrocytes. TNF-a is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is produced by microglia and astrocytes and is involved in brain trauma pathogenesis. Elevated TNF-a levels were observed in CSF and plasma of patients with TBI (41, 42). Taurine, through reducing TNF-a levels in different models of tissue damage has indicated anti-inflammatory effect (34, 37, 38, 40). In our study, Taurine inhibited TNF-a activity and prevented it’s further increase and this is consistent with Su Y et al. study (37). Among examined cytokines, IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that has an important role in inflammation suppression and prevention of excessive immune response. Elevated IL-10 levels in CSF and serum of patients with excessive TBI have been reported (43). On the other hand, it has been indicated that elevated IL-10 production is related to the subsequent sepsis (44). Also, it has been reported that IL-10 concentration in CSF of patients who experience undesirable outcomes is higher (45) and it was consistent with a study on burn patients in 2015 (46). Taurine supplementation in our study reduced IL-10 serum levels. However, at the end of the study, the comparison of mean changes in IL-10 levels, showed no significant difference between the two groups which can be due to the small sample size. CRP is an acute-phase protein that at the time of tissue injury or inflammation is produced in the liver and can have pro-inflammatory effects and increases secondary brain damage. Hs-CRP due to the close relationship with inflammation and tissue damage is considered as clinical infection marker and acute inflammatory response (47). Similar to other studies (29, 46, 48), supplementation with taurine reduced serum levels of hs-CRP. However, this difference between the two groups was not significant but further reduction of hs-CRP in taurine group shows >GET ANSWER