Select a country of your choice (other than Saudi Arabia) and discuss its comparative advantage—the sources and the challenges. What is the role of the government? Does the government provide additional investment? What could increase their advantage?
lf-assessment is described as a type of formative assessment. Formative assessment is student-centered and differs from summative assessment which is teacher-centered. Formative assessment occurs during the learning process, and not at the end of the learning period. According to Fulcher (2016), formative assessment’s purpose is to “inform and improve learning, rather than simply to assess whether the learners have mastered the learning objectives”. Summative assessments are made of criteria set by the instructor while formative assessments are types of assessment that provide feedback on learner’s performance in order to improve this performance. In an article published in 2006, Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick argue that “formative assessment and feedback should be used to empower students as self-regulated learners” (p.199). Ross (2005) praises the use of formative assessments and studies the validity of formative assessment comparing it to summative assessment. He concludes his article by saying that formative assessment has a positive impact on listening. Self-assessments are also involved in self-regulated or self-monitored learning. Dlaska & Krekeler (2008) support this idea. Their article explores, however, the reasons why advanced L2 learners (German) find self-assessment of pronunciation difficult, focuses on reliability: the agreement between learners and professional raters on the self-assessments. They agree that “it is one of the main aims of self-assessment that learners are being equipped to monitor their own learning process competently to decide for themselves which areas of pronunciation they wish to improve” (p.507). In a later study, Butler & Lee (2010) propose two aspects of self-assessment: as a measuring tool and as a tool to facilitate learning, and explore how the validity of such tool is influenced by many factors: “(1) the domain or skill being assessed; (2) students’ individual characteristics; and (3) the ways in which questions and items are formulated and delivered.” (p.7). In an article targeting the Spanish language classroom, Geeslin (2003) explains why students and teachers should use self-assessment in the classroom, and how to use self-assessment. The author clearly links self-assessment to formative assessments and to the communicative language teaching approach. She states “the incorporation of student self-assessment creates a constructive dialogue between student and instructor and increases the degree to which students are aware of instructional goals for individual assignments (p.857). In their study published in 2014, Salimi, Asghar Kargar, & Zareian, analyzed learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) and self-assessment in order to make the learners more autonomous and to help them take responsibility in evaluating their own performance. The authors investigated the validity and reliability of self-assessment of pronunciation. It is stated that training the learners to evaluate their performance is essential to reliability. The results of the study are positive towards self-assessment.>GET ANSWER