Concept Map

Case Study #2
Caleb, a 7-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department by his grandmother. She informs the staff that
she is her grandson’s guardian and that he was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes 3 years prior. She states that
overall she feels his DM is well controlled with his current insulin regimen. He is followed regularly by a
pediatric endocrinologist and his last A1C was 7.8.
Caleb’s grandmother has brought him to the ER today because he has been sleeping a lot and this morning
she noticed he was breathing heavily and “smelled funny.” About one week ago she reports that he had a “flu
bug” and never seemed to get over it. On arrival he was found to have a BS of 572 and was severely acidotic.
He was diagnosed with DKA.

  1. Describe the pathophysiology process of DKA and the role of insulin counter-regulatory hormones. Describe
    the pathophysiologic difference between DKA and HHNKS.
  2. Develop a concept map using the provided template. Disease state: Type 1 Diabetes

Sample Solution