Case Study #2
Caleb, a 7-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department by his grandmother. She informs the staff that
she is her grandson’s guardian and that he was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes 3 years prior. She states that
overall she feels his DM is well controlled with his current insulin regimen. He is followed regularly by a
pediatric endocrinologist and his last A1C was 7.8.
Caleb’s grandmother has brought him to the ER today because he has been sleeping a lot and this morning
she noticed he was breathing heavily and “smelled funny.” About one week ago she reports that he had a “flu
bug” and never seemed to get over it. On arrival he was found to have a BS of 572 and was severely acidotic.
He was diagnosed with DKA.
- Describe the pathophysiology process of DKA and the role of insulin counter-regulatory hormones. Describe
the pathophysiologic difference between DKA and HHNKS.
- Develop a concept map using the provided template. Disease state: Type 1 Diabetes
conomic, political, ideological or military grounds’. Bhutto’s vision of revived and relevant RCD did not materialize (Mahdi, 1999). During 1966-67 at that time East Pakistan was still a part of Pakistan, Jute manufacture formed about 85% of Pakistan export to Turkey. It was said the remaining 15% covered such items as henna powder, new hides, pressure lamps and glycerin (Hasan, 2002). On October 31, 1967 President Ayub Khan of Pakistan visited Turkey, the joint communiqu?? issued, after the visit stated: ‘The two sides noted with satisfaction the growing relations between Pakistan and Turkey in all directions. Both countries were also agreed on a conclusion that measures should be taken to enlarge these relations especially in the economics and cultural fields. With the passage of time both countries further agreed that with a view to promoting trade relations between the two countries, and for this it was noted by the observers that commerce delegations should exchange visits’ (Hasan, 2002). On April 15, 1968, in the 8th meeting of the Council of Ministers, held in Tehran all of these three countries agreed to sense of satisfaction among the council members that the RCD rail link between Iran and Turkey was progressing according to the schedule and the train service between the Quetta and Zahidan had been resumed with effect from November 16, 1967 (Hassan, 2002). At the same time Governments’ efforts to promote intra-regional trade improved unequal to the task of overcoming the tough obstacle that discouraged trade expansion. For instance in 1969 the percentage of goods exchanged among Iran, Pakistan and Turkey stood at the level of 1, 1 .9 and 0.5 percent respectively of their total trade. Thus about 99 percent of the region’s foreign trade was still conducted with the rest of the world. It was partly to expand their potential and diversify the exchanges that the RCD Regional Planning Council decided to set up joint purpose industries. Until 1969, fifty-five joint purpose enterprises had been either established or approved in principle (Ali, 2001).>GET ANSWER