1. Read the report, “Race and Wrongful Convictions in the United States.” (a) Sixty percent of the drug exonerations we know about occurred in Harris County, Texas, home to Houston (133/221). In your opinion, do police enforce drug laws more vigorously against African Americans than against members of the white community? (b) Explain the problem with the Harris County guilty-plea exonerations? How does Harris County address the increasing rate of wrongful convictions? (c) Read Texas HB 34: An ACT relating to measures to prevent wrongful convictions. Explain how the bill would address eyewitness misidentification, live line-ups, and photo line-ups.
HB 34: http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/85R/billtext/pdf/HB00034I.pdf#navpanes=0
2. On December 30, 2016, a transgender woman, Jenny Swift, 49, was found dead in her cell at an all-male prison. (a) Write an essay supporting one of the following positions using information from the above chapter. Choose a position and make an argument – for or against:
? The Department of Justice and Bureau of Prisons should accommodate transgender women and assign them to an all-female prison.
? The Department of Justice and Bureau of Prisons should recognize the biological sex of transgender women and assign them to an all-male prison.
(b) Read, “Treatment of Transgender Inmates—the Double Punishment.” Do you agree with Mintz that prisons can avoid dangerous housing placements with proper screening? What are her recommendations to address this concern?
Authority Theories and Organizational Direction Distributed: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: twentieth June, 2018 Disclaimer: This paper has been put together by an understudy. This isn't a case of the work composed by our expert article authors. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any suppositions, discoveries, conclusions or proposals communicated in this material are those of the writers and don't really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. Administration and authority style matters a considerable measure in choosing destiny of an association. These styles are reflected in both long haul and here and now techniques of the organization. Considering the significance of administration and authority style parcel of scholar thought of their methods of insight. Some of them consider charming identity of pioneer the way to progress while different considers cooperation the best arrangement. This report is being created for the chiefs of NEWG to clarify different administration and initiative ideas. It indicates how these speculations can influence functioning of an association and can assume a conclusive part in the accomplishment of hierarchical targets. In the event that connected in pertinence to the necessities of association can prompt extreme achievement. Initiative Theories and Organizational Direction Each association is setup in view of a few goals. It can be benefit procuring, philanthropy, law upholding or intentional, whatever the target it reflects in the strategies of an association. Authority sets the course for an association and administration guarantees to actualize arrangements that lead associations to accomplish set objectives. Remembering points of association distinctive administration hypotheses can be adjusted to help center targets that set the style of administration in an association. Transformational Leadership Theory At first created by James McGregor Burns in the time of 1970, the hypothesis picked up a ton of ubiquity among business world. This hypothesis has four constituents i.e. charming identity, support through inspiration, wise motivation and customized consideration. Being charming means pioneer has characteristics that pull in individuals around him. It can be pioneer's identity, sex offer, style of correspondence, dynamic, hearty and legitimate nearness. Take a case of Martin Luther King, a lobbyist and solid American pioneer who remained for the African American common right aim. Such authority with their astounding relational abilities convince individuals for change. They bring the possibility that current framework isn't helping them decrease their issues and they have to embrace new systems. They spur individuals to think in an unexpected way, make better approaches for doing things that is the place the word 'transformational' originates from. Such pioneers demonstrate a great deal of watch over individuals; center around their requirements and contact their worries. Thusly they attempt to win hearts of their supporters, since change is a troublesome thing to get a handle on. Individuals feel loose in their old surroundings and it is most extreme hard to change somebody's propensities. This needs a considerable measure of exertion and responsibility without which it is difficult to realize change. Having great identity, vision, motivation through inspiration and individual thoughtfulness regarding group of onlookers are brilliant attributes for a decent pioneer. This aides wining sensitivities of individuals who will then work entire heartedly to accomplish targets. This procedure is particularly exceptionally successful when a current framework isn't working extremely well and there is have to change. In any case, for this framework to work, authority ought to have great learning and comprehension of the earth in which association is working. This is time of data and if the initiative doesn't know about all that is going on in the encompassing it can't convince individuals. Second thing that requirements thought is that pioneer ought to comprehend distinctive circumstances and continue as needs be on the grounds that activities which are appropriate for one condition require not be the best fit in some different environment. Thirdly certainties alone won't resist changing personalities of the general population yet the administration ought to have great relational abilities to pass on their thought. To wrap things up thinking about individuals is another vital factor since nothing can be accomplished without commitment of devotees. To accomplish sensitivities of individuals, one needs to demonstrate concern and sensitivity for them, facilitate with them on individual terms. Change is a difficult thing and larger part of individuals oppose change. All together for a dare to be fruitful the most vital necessity is that individuals are prepared to receive change which is just conceivable on the off chance that they comprehend that the individual accountable for change i.e. administration shows some kindness to feel their worries. Generally savage change will confront solid opposition and won't accomplish its definitive objective. This is magnificent, financially savvy hypothesis of administration that can be connected at Milky Bits and workings on the standards of transformational hypothesis organization can accomplish confidence, devotion and hearts of laborers that would hugely enhance the proficiency in Milky Bits. Value-based Leadership Theory As depicted by Bernard M. Bass in 1981, value-based administration depends on execution and reward. Errands are doled out to the representatives and on the off chance that they are fruitful they are remunerated else rebuffed, i.e. exchange, trade because of execution. Instead of depending on the idea of inspiration as depicted in transformational hypothesis it achieves the possibility of motivating force and punishment. It creates sort of connection amongst pioneer and adherent that is doing as coordinated. On the off chance that a worker plays out his/her undertaking meeting the due date, inside spending plan and according to mandates of its chief, representative will get benefits. On the off chance that the representative in some way or another misses to accomplish what was required, he would be rebuffed. This is an outrageous sort of relationship and shows receptive approach of administration. This hypothesis is centered around expert of director who sets the prizes/disciplines for here and now objectives. Keeping in mind the end goal to work it viably the administrator ought to plainly distinguish errands that are in accordance with the general targets of association and give adequate assets to individual from staff while appointing assignments. Director ought to have enough expert and control to remunerate or rebuff subordinates and he ought to consistently screen the activities of subordinates. As indicated by the hypothesis, workers have single target for work i.e. to get motivating force that is for the most part as monetary advantages however it could be something different like acknowledgment or advancement and so forth. Temptations are the most great driver for specialists to focus on their errands; thus precisely planned target motivating force framework can enhance laborer's yield in Milky Bits. Despite the fact that it is a fleeting arrangement, in light of the fact that if utilized for all time it can build up a culture where nobody will work without clear motivations, however it can bring great outcomes if supervisors prevail to obviously recognize errands that prompt extreme goals. Dole out these assignments to the significant representative, furnish them with every adequate asset and give them appropriate preparing. It can create magnificent outcomes for Milky Bits, which is developing association, in brief timeframe. Magnetic Theory German humanist Max Weber in 1920 presented Charismatic Theory that spins around identity that has attributes to pull in devotees. These could be characteristic God talented qualities that separates them from overall population like their family/religious foundation, their sex claim, their vision and dynamism of their identity. Other than that a few characteristics can be learnt like great investigative and relational abilities. Without having specialist or forces accumulates individuals around him, in actuality alluring pioneer utilizes the intensity of individuals. Such pioneers can comprehend mind-set of individuals and outline their demonstrations as needs be. Individuals indiscriminately confidence and take after their pioneer which is incredible accomplishment for any pioneer. Later on Conger and Kanungo in 1998 depicted Charismatic Leader is one having characteristics of vision and correspondence, empathy to nature, care to the necessities of individuals, daring individual and doing un-common things. Henceforth magnetic pioneer ought to be able to predict the future i.e. vision. He ought to have the capacity to successfully speak with individuals in light of the fact that on the off chance that he has a few thoughts however can't persuade the overall population it would be squander. He ought to comprehend nature in which he is working on the grounds that distinctive circumstances require diverse type of activity. Appealling pioneer ought to comprehend emotions and necessities of the general population for this he ought to include with the general population, comprehend and understand their issues and comprehend their prerequisites. Without solid comprehension of individuals' issues it is hard to persuade them. Pioneer is burn conveyor of progress, in this regard this hypothesis is firmly connected with transformational hypothesis, however change is a troublesome wonder. Most importantly individuals typically have solid obstruction for change and furthermore you can foresee to some degree however no one is penny for every penny beyond any doubt about the result of progress. Things can turn out badly at point, for this very reason a pioneer ought to be striking daring person. Pioneer is a man who takes surprising choices at basic circumstances in light of the fact that troublesome circumstances require extreme choices. Standard individuals don't anticipate that such choices will be taken; henceforth Conger and Kanungo included daring person and un-regular chief as the attributes of appealling hypothesis of administration. This hypothesis could turn out to be exceptionally powerful in certain sort of circumstances. At the point when there is need of some solid choice and there is no opportunity to consult with individuals. In the event that such choices originate from a man whom everybody trusts, gives regard and has daze confidence in him it is anything but difficult to actualize such choices. It is a savvy arrangement as individuals following their pioneers just based on their followership. This implies you don't have to give them motivations to do as such>GET ANSWER