The City of Omaha has hired your firm to either resurface or repair Elmwood Part Rd from Pacific St. to the four-way stop with University Dr. Your project manager has asked you to come up with a cost estimate for the project. Use the NDOT information linked to below as a source of cost data. You will need to use Google Earth, ArcMap, or CAD to estimate the length and surface area. Include a figure of the road and your areal estimate. You will need to find a typical street cross-section to find typical depths to calculate volumes.
Create a cost table, or use the one included as Table 1, to list at least ten things you can imagine would be required to do this project. You know almost nothing about how the resurfacing or repair will be implemented, just use your best judgment about what you think may be required for this project. For example, you may need to remove asphalt, pour concrete, repaint, etc. Use your best judgement to estimate the quantity of each item that would be needed for the project, given your measurements.
Get the item name, unit, and unit cost from the NDOT sources. Sum the ten items to get a total construction cost. Design costs can be anywhere from 3% to 10% of construction costs. Use a 30% contingency. List the total project cost and, for the purposes of this assignment, the cost per linear foot. Write a description of the cost estimate. For each of the ten items, why did you choose the items you chose, and how did you come up with the quantities? Explain your choices. An example description could be: 1,400 linear feet (as measured) of yellow reflective marking at $9.72 per foot.
Presentation Numerous things have been said and expounded on America's intrusion of Iraq. To date, the majority of what have been said is basically responses leveled against the clarifications received by the then America's routine and her partners in advocating attack of Iraq. Shrubbery's routine told the universal network that there was dire need to attack Iraq so as to expel Saddam Hussein's tyrannical administration from power and along these lines clear path for the entrenchment of vote based system in Iraq which is an essential to worldwide harmony and security particularly in this time of fear mongering. Despite the fact that UN Security Council's knowledge staff doled out the obligation of examining America's cases of presence of WMDs in Iraq was not in congruity with those cases, America proceeded in taking part in a standout amongst the most costly war since the finish of Cold War. This paper tries to build up whether sociopolitical clarifications embraced by America in the midst of dissents from the International people group and the UN were supported by America's enthusiasm to keep up her worldwide financial strength or the broadcasted political intention of freeing Iraqis from oppression. War as a methods for actualizing outside approach By and large, war is an over the top expensive outside approach execution instrument which no normal country would need to oftentimes utilize not except if it's the main option for her survival. All states - the ground-breaking and the powerless U.S included attempts however much as could reasonably be expected to utilize tranquil strategy in executing their outside strategies abroad and can just hotel to coercive tact (war) when it's the main judicious option for securing its survival and interests in the International System. Investigators were accordingly left unconvinced whether the need to remove awful authority in Iraq was the primary and real explanation for America's intrusion of Iraq or her desire to keep up herself position as the worldwide monetary goliath was progressively critical. Undoubtedly, there is no financial, political, or social clarification that can individually completely and convincingly clarify America's intrusion of Iraq. The financial point of view of the intrusion Quest for financial advancement and strength abroad is one of the real objectives of any country state's remote arrangements. Paul Cerni Mphil (2006) states that "… what each country and domain tries to will be to support their own economy where vital… " America is no special case as in her assurance to keep up her worldwide monetary position emerges as one of the fundamental determinants of her outside approaches. Undoubtedly, her desire to position her self as the worldwide financial monster has been called attention to by researchers and universal political experts as the fundamental main impetus behind year 2003 intrusion of Iraq. Completely, Marxists attributable to the goliath measure of cash spent on this war don't refer to some other intention behind the intrusion of Iraq by America in collusion with Britain among others. For them some other non financial clarifications embraced by America in supporting her activities was insignificant political lip service gone for deceiving the worldwide network from restricting intrusion of Iraq. Paula Cerni Mphil (2006) yet again contends that "The US intrusion of Iraq, promoted as a compelling assault on worldwide dread and oppression, should stamp the ascent of a more grounded and progressively confident American dominion." Commentators don't get why if America's declared objective of expelling terrible authority in Iraq was the primary motivation she didn't waver from attacking Iraq even after UN Security Council neglected to deliver proof for the presence of WMDs in Iraq. They dismiss America's cases of the need to oppression in Iraq since the UN should keeping up worldwide security and harmony by asking nations to establish legitimate structures that can avert individuals with terrible thoughts like which are a risk to majority rule presence from assuming control over power. Subsequently, these pundits contend that the need to make an empowering situation in Iraq for reasons for abusing her rich oil mines was the central enthusiasm for this intrusion. Oil as a wellspring of vitality for her ventures is one of the profoundly requested crude material by American entrepreneurs and radicals who couldn't feel any torment in subsidizing such a costly outside strategy try. America was in this manner resolved to remove Saddam Hussein from power not for purposes accomplishing a popularity based administration in Iraq however with the goal that they could set up a manikin authority which they could without much of a stretch control so as to fulfill their egotistical monetary interests. To these commentators in this manner, America was basically determined to vanquish a lofty monetary domain and wrongly expected that the frail Iraq would acknowledge her broadcasted objective of destroying awful administration from power. A short scrutinize of the monetary contention for the attack Note that Marxists are known for their propensity to over accentuate the monetary parts of a given genuine marvel like intrusion of Iraq by America. Notwithstanding, a fair examiner should see all components in play and attempt as mush as conceivable to put behind each factor an accentuation that isn't overstated. That is, in as much as monetary interests were essential in this attack and are for the most part in some random remote strategy different interests like her national security, survival, harmony, and need to proliferate her belief systems can on occasion could easily compare to minor quest for financial riches and strength It is along these lines authentic to contend that in as much as much as America needed to abuse Iraq's oil different interests, for example, her national security and survival in the universal framework assumed a huge job. It's for example doubtful that for this situation American political elites felt that Saddam Hussein's routine was a danger to her a national security and survival by ideals of the way that it could give a working base to worldwide fear mongers. There was need in this way to attack Iraq so as to finish awful initiative and consequently introduce another just administration that would not just ensure Iraqis their tranquility and human rights yet in addition empower America defend her national security and survival against the danger of psychological oppressor assaults from Iraq. Remarks posted on geocities.com states that for a significant timeframe "US organization kept on considering expelling Hussein's routine from power and following the September 11, 2001 fear based oppressor pulverization of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in New York, they concluded that they had adequate reason to do as such." This contention is tied down on the reason that Iraq has been is as yet a center point of unsafe psychological oppressor and revolutionary gatherings including the feared Al Qaeda dread gathering. To some degree in this manner, America's national security and survival in the universal framework declared by Bush routine was as critical as situating herself as a worldwide financial goliath. It is accordingly unreasonable and even unscholarly to give the Iraq intrusion a flat out monetary clarification subsequently under looking different elements. Nonetheless, power of America's financial desire in this attack ought to be given its thought as needs be particularly because of her voracious "thirst" for oil which is bounty in Iraq. End All in all, much the same as it was brought up before there is nobody specific factor (financial, social or political) that can clarify America's attack of Iraq without confronting the risks of lacking unprejudiced nature. An unbiased examiner should along these lines painstakingly put into thought all variables in play without over underscoring some to the detriment of others. Time and history in this manner stays to refute us or ideal concerning our conclusions relating this attack. Supporters of universal harmony and security might for example want to perceive how effective America will be in building up harmony and dependability and remaking the fallen Iraq country. And furthermore comprehend why quite a long while after Saddam Hussein was hanged for his tyrannical administration, terrible initiative is relentless in most Asian nations and no WMDs have been recouped from Iraq.>GET ANSWER