Write a report on the UK labour market. You will have to (1) collect, examine and present aggregated data using Excel and (2) set up and test three research questions with SPSS using a Census provided on the module web.
Aggregated data (‘country level data’) from OECD will be used to illustrate any changes in the UK labour market over time and to compare it with other OECD countries. This part is worth 40% of the overall mark. The 2011 Census Microdata file from the Office for National Statistics, which contains information on characteristics of UK residents, such as hours of work, health status, economic activity, etc., will be used. This part is worth 60% of the overall coursework mark. You can get some inspiration for research questions by watching the news, reading newspapers articles, etc.
The report will have the following structure:
• Title page (including Group number and names)
• Table of contents
• Part 1: Data analysis using aggregated data (Excel)
• Part 2: Data analysis using micro data (SPSS)
Information about Submission:
The assignment should be uploaded onto Turnitin on, or before, the deadline specified in the teaching plan (18:00 on Friday 30/03/18), by only ONE member of the group. You will need to produce your work in a single Word document. This means that any data and charts you produce in Excel or SPSS must be imported (copied) into Word. I recommend you to save your word file as pdf document and upload the pdf version of your report onto the Moodle link available in the ‘Assessment’ folder. This will ensure that all graphs and tables in your document are correctly displayed. Note that the Moodle link only accepts pdf or word (.doc/.docx) documents. Any other formats cannot be opened and will receive a mark of 0.
1 Part 1: Data analysis using aggregated data (Excel)
This part is worth 40% of the overall group coursework mark. This part should not be longer than 7 pages including any appendices. You will need to find and import data into Excel from the OECD website. Download the following data for the UK and three other OECD member countries of your choice for the period 2000 to
2012:
1. Harmonised unemployment rate. Hint: find the monthly harmonised unemployment rate and select annual data in the frequency selection.
2. Trade Union Density.
3. GDP, volume – annual growth rates in percentage.
4. Average annual wages in 2016 constant prices at 2016 USD PPPs.
Add all the raw data into the appendix of Part 1. Do not forget to present the data in a user-friendly format. (Hint: A precise description of a variable, i.e. what it measures, can be found by clicking on the ‘i’ next to the variable name.) Make sure that this part contains the following sections:
• Introduction
• Main Body
• Conclusion
• References
• Appendix
The work should be neat and tidy and easy to read. Also, it is very important to use a consistent referencing style for both in-text citations and the list of references displayed at the end of Part 1. Below, further information is given on what has to be included in the main body of Part 1.
Main Body
1.1 Calculations (5 Marks)
On your spreadsheet calculate the changes in the unemployment rate for the observation period and copy it into your Word document. Make sure that the data is well presented. The formula for changes is:
∆URt = URt −URt−1 (1)
1.2 Numeric Statistics (15 Marks)
Provide numeric descriptive statistics (Mean, Median, Max, Min, Interquartile Range, Std. Dev. and Skewness) for unemployment rate, trade union density, GDP growth rate and average annual wages for the UK and each of the selected three OECD member countries and describe them briefly. The numeric descriptive statistics have to be presented in a well formatted table.
(Maximum 200 words)
1.3 Graphical Methods (40 marks)
1. Create a line chart that compares unemployment rate of the UK with the unemployment rate of 3 other OECD member countries over the period 2000 – 2012.
2. Create a line chart that compares average wage of the UK with the average wages of 3 other OECD member countries over the period 2000 – 2012.
3. Create a scatter plot that shows the relationship between the GDP growth rate and the change in unemployment rate using data from the UK and 3 other OECD member countries.
4. Create a bar chart to compare the trade union density of the UK and 3 other OECD member countries for the years 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012.
Charts have to be clearly labelled and presented. Describe briefly what each of your charts show.
(Maximum 300 words)
1.4 Economic interpretation of data (40 marks)
Use numeric and graphical descriptive statistics to illustrate to what extent the UK unemployment rate differs from the unemployment rate of other OECD member countries and use economic theory to explain any of those differences (think like an economist!!!). Note that (if necessary) you may create additional charts using the downloaded data to support your arguments. Extra marks will be awarded for evidence of research having been undertaken. This includes relevant references and quotes where appropriate. Any references should be shown within the text, in the standard manner of an academic paper. Extra Marks will also be awarded for the application of appropriate theory to the data.
(Maximum 600 words)
2 Part 2: Data analysis using micro level data
This part is worth 60% of the overall group coursework mark. This part of the report should not exceed 9 pages including appendices. On Moodle under the section ‘Assessment’ you will find a data file (CW2.sav) from the 2011 Census Microdata file of the Office for National Statistics. See below for details about the survey. You have to use this dataset for your report.
Part 2 should have the following structure:
• Aims of the investigation and hypotheses
• Descriptive statistics
• Hypothesis tests
• Summary/Conclusion
• References
• Appendix
Complete the following tasks:
2.1 Aims of the investigation and hypotheses (25 marks)
Using the 2011 Census Microdata identify three research questions and highlight their importance. Set up your hypotheses. Show that you can think like an economist!
(Maximum 400 words)
2.2 Descriptive statistics (20 marks)
In line with the aims of the investigation you provided generate descriptive statistics using tables and graphs with SPSS. You have to provide information for the reader about the sample and variables of interests.
(Maximum 300 words)
2.3 Hypothesis tests (45 marks)
Set up and conduct hypotheses tests and interpret the results. This section should contain three hypothesis tests. At least one must be a cross tabulation table and associated χ2-tests and at least one should be a comparison-of-means test. The analysis of your results is very important. Do not just present the statistics with no explanations of what they show! You must discuss the results!!!! Use economic theory to explain your results.
(Maximum 900 words)
2.4 Summary/Conclusion (10 marks)
Summarise your main results and provide conclusions.
(Maximum 300 words)
More Information on the Data
A reduced form of the 2011 Census Micro Dataset is the dataset for this part of the assignment. This Microdata Teaching dataset consists of a random sample of 1% of people in the 2011 Census for England and Wales. This includes people classed as both usual residents and short-term residents. Specifically, the dataset includes:
• Records on 569,741 individuals
• For each individual, information is available on 18 separate characteristics, i.e. variables, with varying degrees of information for each variable.
For your coursework you will need to select variables of your interest. It is up to you which variables you use. The following categorical variables are included in the dataset:
Person ID, Region, Residence type, Family composition, Population base, Sex, Age, Marital status, Student (schoolchild or full-time student), Country of birth, Health (general health), Ethnic group, Religion, Economic activity, Occupation, Industry, Hours worked per week, Approximated social grade.
Additionally, two continuous variables were added by your tutor for the purposes of this assignment: Hours worked per week (continuous) and Age (continuous).
You have to read the Microcensus User Guide and Microcensus Variable List (all available on Moodle under the Group Coursework section) to get a detailed explanation about the dataset and its variables. If you do not read those documents, you will not understand what each categorical variable measures.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.