Covid-19 had caused drastic increases in government spending and government debt across the globe in an effort to stimulate aggregate demand the economies as a whole. Recently there is a growing interest in the new theory called the Modern Monetary Theory (MMT). The theory explains that rising budget deficits are good economies as long as increased government spending does not lead to inflation. Furthermore, this theory promotes rising government debt as means of supporting government spending. As noted by Stephanie Kelton in her book “The Deficit Myth”, governments can fund this spending and servicing of debt through printing money. As such, all the spending could, in principle, be financed via the creation of cash rather than taxes. Taxes may serve other purposes such as providing public services. In relation to the above, use the multiplier model (or other models such as the IS-LM and AS-AD models) and critically analyse the effectiveness of MMT in South Africa. Furthermore, give your own policy recommendations of how the South African economy can grow post the COVID-19 pandemic.
FA score is an objective and simple score that allows the estimation of both number and severity of organ dysfucntion and during the first days of hospitalization in ICU, is a suitable prognostic index (55). In the present study, supplementation with taurine could not reduce this score in the taurine group significantly. The length of ICU stay and dependence on ventilator in the taurine group were not significantly lower than the control group. On the other hand, two patients in the taurine group (9.1%) and six patients in the control group (27.3%) had thirty-day mortality and the percentage of mortality in the control group was almost similar to the study by Kasmaei et al. (56). Although taurine reduced mortality rate, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (p = 0.240). This non-significance can be due to small sample size and in this regard, the clinical importance of this reduction should not be ignored. For this purpose, NNT was estimated for thirty-day mortality. The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) includes the number of patients who should be treated to prevent a bad outcome. NNT estimated from 1/Absolute Risk Reduction. In the present study, NNT is equal to 6, meaning that of every 6 patients who received taurine, 1 death was prevented. Nutrition Risk in Critically ill (NUTRIC) score is the first nutrition risk instrument that is specifically validated for patients in ICU and can identify patients under malnutrition risk (57). In this scoring system, 0-5 show low nutrition risk and 6-10 show high nutrition risk. Those who are in the high risk group, can take more advantage of nutrition supports (58). Although in this study improvement of nutrition risk in the taurine group was higher, no significant difference existed between the two groups. Patients’ weight decreased in both groups that in the taurine group, it was significantly lower than the control group and this is consistent with a study by Sun et al. (59). This trial is the first study that has investigated the effects of taurine on inflammatory markers and clinical outcomes in human models. The limitations of this study included small sample size and short-term period of supplementation. Therefore, future studies with larger sample size and longer supplement periods are needed to provide more evidences to support the use of taurine in patients with TBI for inflammation improvement and clinical outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that taurine supplementation for patients with TBI is accompanied by clinical advantages compared with the patients in the control group, because this supplement reduced the levels of inflammatory biomarkers and also APACHEII score. Moreover, thirty-day mortality and weigh loss in patients in taurine group was less than the patients in the control group. Also, GCS of patients in taurine group improved significantly. Therefore, taurine can reduce the inflammation of patients with TBI and may be considered as an adjunctive treatment for these patients. However, more studies with larger sample size are necessary to clarify the advantages for this group of patients.>GET ANSWER