Using Gibbs’ cycle for reflection, you are required to write a critical reflection with respect to the administration of an injectable medication undertaken in your OSCE in NURBN 2011. You are asked to apply Standard 1,6 & 7 in relation to your responsibilities as a Registered nurse when administering injectable medication. Irrespective of which OSCE you undertook, you are required to utilise safe, quality practice.
The eighth (Amendment VIII) to the United States Constitution can be legitimately characterized as the area of the United Sates Bill of Rights what disallows the national government from forcing over the top fines, neither causing pitiless and bizarre disciplines nor forcing inordinate safeguard. The eighth amendment was affirmed to be a piece of the United States Constitution in the year 1791.This change was relatively like a stipulation made in the English Bill of Rights of 1689 where the administration made an affirmation to the point that they needed to work as their predecessors had by not requesting for extreme safeguard neither forcing unnecessary fines nor dispensing brutal or irregular disciplines. On account of England the arrangement was chiefly determined by the discipline including Titus Oates. Amid the reign of King James II in the 1680s Titus Oates filled in as an apparatus in the London pillory circuit. Oates was included numerous conventional punishments that had been altogether forced constrained on him in a way that was both inordinate and unparalleled. Oates had lied under vow which prompted numerous honest individuals being set under capital punishment. Parliament affirmed the statement against "remorseless and strange disciplines "for England in the year 1689. The presentation was clarified by the parliament that it should anticipate disciplines, for example, the one dispensed on Titus Oates by the King's Bench. In December 1689 the then parliament supported the arrangement to be passed into law. The main state to embrace a stand like that of England on the issues was the territory of Virginia. In the year 1776 the Virginia assertion of rights consolidated the English bill of rights and after that went on above and beyond to suggest in the year 1788 that the above arrangement be incorporated into the unified states constitution as at the Virginia tradition that intended to affirm the U.S constitution. It was some Virginia states men, for example, Patrick Henry and George Mason that initially embraced that congress be constrained by utilization of the confinement as in the English bill of rights. This depended on the apprehensions that if that did not occur the congress could deliver a few disciplines that were both strange and serious on crooks. The two Virginians additionally focused on the requirement for the Congress to get rid of the line in the English bill of rights that appeared to concede to torments and uncouth discipline caused on its kin before. And furthermore prescribed congress to begin the order of common law for the more honed customary law. At last Mason and Henry were effective in their journey and after that the eighth amendment was received by the United States. In the year 1789 James Madison changed the words "should" in the English bill of rights to" might" at that point proposed it to the congress for correction. Pitiless and strange disciplines The eighth amendment as indicated by the Supreme Court restricted altogether the curse of a few disciplines and in the meantime preclude some different disciplines which when contrasted with the wrongdoing for which they were given for apparently was extreme or those which supposedly was unnecessary when the fitness of the culprit was put into light. This was viewed as essential in light of the fact that in the prior years a portion of the judgments passed on to the general population were in overabundance considering the way that the culprits were either awkward to carry out such violations or the wrongdoings conferred were minor. In the year 1962 the incomparable courts decided that the savage and irregular disciplines act connected to every one of the conditions of the United States through the fourteenth amendment. This took after the case including Robinson versus California, 370 U.S. 660 in the year 1960. Prior to the Robinson case the eighth amendment had just before been connected in arguments against the government. For the situation including Furman versus Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 of the year 1962 the four rules that would decide if a discipline passed onto a culprit was "brutal and irregular" were composed by Justice Brennan. These included proclamations that for the discipline passed on judging by how serious it is debase human pride under conditions as on account of torment, it additionally that any uncommon and remorseless discipline was one which was absolutely and unmistakably dismissed by the entire society, one which apparently was exacted in a way that supposedly was completely self-assertive or one that was obviously pointless. Brennan went ahead to compose that it was a desire that no American state would pass a law that would appear to undermine any of the four principals, to such an extent that all choices made in court including the eighth amendment would consider all the these standards. The disciplines for which as indicated by the eighth revise were taboo paying little mind to the wrongdoing submitted would incorporate any type of gutting, open analyzing, drawing and quartering or copying alive. This in connection to the four Brennan standards where disciplines that were completely dismissed all through the general public. In the instances of Atkins versus Virginia 536 U.S. 304 of 2002 the incomparable court pronounced executing rationally debilitated individuals fell in the taboo disciplines and furthermore on account of Roper versus Simmons 543 U.S. 551 of 2005 where the court decided that executing individuals under18 years was an infringement of the eighth amendment paying little heed to the wrongdoing submitted by the culprit. Disciplines that were prohibited for specific violations included cases in which the court needed to upset disciplines, for example, the cadena transient which ordered that "hard and excruciating work" shackling are discarded while during the time spent detainment or when looked with common inabilities that were changeless. The case said above occurred in 1910 and was regularly observed as a methods for setting up some proportionality while applying the eighth amendment. In some different cases it was decided that rebuffing a characteristic conceived American resident for any wrongdoing by taking endlessly his citizenship was seen to be illegal and crude as it included totally harming the individual's status in the general public. For a situation including Coker versus Virginia 433 U.S. 584 of 1977 the court at the time unmistakably expressed that the burden of a capital punishment or assault was absolutely illegal and that connected to whatever other situation where demise did not happen. It proceeded to elucidate that assault wrongdoings by definition do exclude either passing or even any genuine body mischief to the next individual. Unreasonable fines For a long time the United States Supreme Court never had much to state when the subject of exorbitant fines was specified. In one early case the Supreme Court had no energy to overhaul any judgments go by a lower court as respects the subject of substantial fines being forced on somebody. In later years the need to need to survey the measure of fines exacted on a man since it generally prompted the detainment in light of the fact that the individual was not able raise the sum forced on him/her by the court. In a stage intended to guarantee level with national security the court figured out how to put to significance the words "extreme fines" when contrasted with the individual for whom the judgment is intended to influence. However, the court likewise discounted applying the above provision couldn't be connected to cases including private situations where the legislature had not been engaged with the indictment nor was it to get any offer of any of the granted harms. This choice depended on the aim for which the unnecessary fines provision was implied for. The court unmistakably expressed that when the eighth amendment was embraced into the assembled states constitution the word 'fine' was taken to allude to any installment that would need to be made to sovereign substance for an offense submitted. THE court left open the choice with respect to whether the proviso could be connected to qui cap activities or cases including common punishments yet in the meantime it reasoned that the over the top fines statement was at first proposed to influence the fines that were just forced by one payable to the administration. In cases including any polite relinquishment the over the top fines proviso could be connected. The importance of the condition as it respects to the quantum discipline of a specific offenses when it is autonomous of the capacity of the guilty party to pay the fine forced on regardless him anticipates the consequence of legitimate procedures. Extreme safeguard In England it was the obligation of the sheriffs to choose whether or not a man should have been allowed safeguard. Because of the nonstop mishandle of energy by the sheriffs the administration in those days discharged a statute that unmistakably arranged the bailable and the non-bailable offenses. Be that as it may, these statutes could be subverted by the choice of the King's judges. As per the law then a man could be held without safeguard contingent upon the summons of the sovereign specialist. It was regularly contended that the King did not have the expert to settle on such choices and this prompted the encroachment of human rights when individuals were deliberately kept in jail regardless of having conferred bailable offenses. This and numerous more ambiguities were in the end put to an end by the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679. After the Habeas Act was passed judges were looked with the choice to set the safeguard sums however they regularly represented a few sums that were impracticable. It was until the year 1689 that the English bill of rights disallows the request of over the top rights however a further change to recognize bailable and non bailable offenses was required. Safeguard is said to be unreasonable and infringing upon the Eighth amendment if the incentive to which it is set is higher when contrasted with the sensibly ascertained esteem that is gone for guaranteeing the administration's stated intrigue. The point of setting safeguard is said to be as an assurance that the individual who is charged will introduce himself for trial and acknowledge the sentence that is passed on to him and no more. All together for a man to have the capacity to challenge the measure of safeguard forced on him he should move for>GET ANSWER