Describe the specific changes in chipped stone tools that characterized the evolution of technology from the Oldowan to the Acheulian, Mousterian, and Upper Paleolithic periods.
The sample consisted of about 400 female undergraduate students from The College of New Jersey (M= 19.86 years, SD= 1.251, range = 18-23) who were selected through the PIPER pool to participate in research. Participants must be 18 years old and female to participate in this study, if they do not meet this criterion they will not be allowed to participant in the study. Participants’ ethnic background were 70.6% White European American, 11.8% Asian, 0% Native American or Pacific Islander, 7.4% African American, and 0% American Indian or Alaska Native; also 2.9% reported other ethnicity. With regards to year in college, 6 identified as seniors, 17 as juniors, 18 as sophomores and 27 as freshman. All participants received one piper credit for participation lasting up to 30 minutes. Materials We used advertisements to manipulate the independent variable, taboo messages. Participants were shown two different advertisements, all participants saw the water bottle advertisement and then participants saw one of the two menstrual product advertisements. A water bottle advertisement was viewed by participants followed by two randomly assigned tampon advertisements. The purpose of the water bottle advertisement was to avoid deception as the study was listed as an health advertisements on PIPER, the water bottle served as a more neutral advertisement before viewing those concerning menstruation. One of which was a taboo message involving menstruation and one in which was non-taboo. The non-taboo advertisement clearly showed an African American woman and Caucasian man taking sheets off a bed. On the sheets is a large menstrual blood stain. This ads heading was “No Shame” printed boldly at the top center of the page and the caption at the bottom of the ad stated, “Periods are nothing to be ashamed of. They’re natural and period products should be natural too. The taboo advertisement, showed a caucasian man in front of a large bed captioned, “Mother nature please, the room is already paid for”. The bottom smaller caption stated, “Our best wishes for Valentines Day”. Both advertisements were for tampon products and referred to menstruation in different ways, either accepting or rejecting it. Taboo messages were known to provoke prohibiting and restricted attitudes toward menstruation. Taboo messages led to increased state self-objectification for Italian women (Spadaro et al. 2017). After being exposed to a taboo message, those with low menstrual knowledge were more likely to self-objectify than those with higher menstrual knowledge. After viewing advertisements participants were asked to evaluate them with a series of questions that included, “What product is being advertised?” which was answered with a written response. “How likely are you to purchase this product?” which answers ranged from extremely likely to extremely unlikely. “How would you rate the quality of this product?” with answers ranging from terrible to excellent. “How positive or negative is the message the advertisement conveys?” with answers ranging from extremely negative to extremely positive. “How useful is this product?” with answers ranging from not useful at all to extremely useful.>GET ANSWER