Discussion Assignment

Computing Professional Skills, Discussion Activity: Current Issue in the Computing Field – Cryptography


The purpose of this assignment is to give you the opportunity to practice the type of skills that are important for success in your CTI courses and for computing professionals in the workplace.

You and a few of your classmates will participate in an online discussion in Blackboard that will last for 12 days. You will read a short article which is given below, and then you will analyze the issue with your team and come to consensus (i.e. agreement) on what the next steps should be to help resolve the issue.

By participating in this online discussion, you are giving consent to your instructor to use your anonymous discussion board posts for academic research purposes.

The CTI programs are accredited by ABET, the world leader in technical education accreditation. The following ABET learning outcomes, which are linked to Zayed University’s MALOs, state that students should have the following professional skills:

3b. An ability to analyze a problem, and identify and define the computing requirements
appropriate to its solution.
3d. An ability to function effectively on teams to accomplish a common goal.
3e. An understanding of professional, ethical, legal, security and social issues and
3f. An ability to communicate effectively
3g. An ability to analyze the local and global impact of computing on individuals,
organizations, and society
3h. Recognition of the need for and an ability to engage in continuing professional

These are the generic workplace skills that all successful computing professionals must possess.

Assume that you have been appointed by the UAE government to a task force of 5 or 6 computing professionals. You have been asked to examine the current issue outlined in the article below. Your team has not been asked to make specific recommendations to solve the problem. Rather, you have been asked to make recommendations that will help the Government decide what next steps they should take.

This task is discussion-based, meaning you will participate through a collaborative exchange and critique of each other’s ideas and work. Your team needs to think carefully about the issue and discuss it amongst yourselves in the online discussion board. You need to look at the issue from various perspectives. The goal is to challenge and support one another as a team to tap your collective resources and experiences to dig more deeply into the issue/s raised in the article. As each team member will refine his/her ideas through the dialogue that develops, and, as you are working together, it is very important to make your posts in a timely manner.

So as to guide your discussion six questions are given for you to consider. These guiding questions are in line with the steps and main considerations when examining and solving complex issues. Each team member should make between 4 (minimum) and 6 (maximum) posts. The posts should take into consideration what others have said in previous posts. As part of a team you need to keep in mind that ultimately the team should reach consensus. So, as a team member you need to be checking carefully what others have said and ensuring that it is correct. You need to be sure that your team is working from facts and giving opinion based on facts, so you need to scrutinize the information to be sure it is accurate. You need to access and read other sources of information to help your team understand the issue better. You need to be diplomatic in your communication with your team members.

You will be graded on Timeliness, Quality, Teamwork, and English. Your grade will be based on your four best posts.
• Teamwork
You must acknowledge the posts of others. You must be critical of the posts of others. You must avoid repeating what others have said. You must try to keep the team on track. You must make sure the team is moving forward based on facts and also well-reasoned opinion.
• Quality of Discussion
Your posts should show critical thinking and clear reasoning. While much of the content of your posts should be based on facts you should also give your opinion when appropriate. You must state where you got your facts so that the other team members can depend on them (and check them if they wish). It must be clear to others when you are giving opinion that it is opinion. Your posts must make a meaningful contribution towards the issue. Your posts must move the issue forward.

Guiding Questions
Consider the following important guiding questions as you work on this.
1. What are the primary and secondary problems?
2. Who are the major stakeholders and what are their perspectives?
3. What are some of the major professional, ethical, legal, security and social issues?
4. What are the local and global implications of both the problem/s and possible solutions?
5. What, if any, additional information would you need to effectively address the problem/s?

For now I need answer the below question and relate the answer to others posts (mention names as they did in their posts)
6. What are the next steps that would lead to possible future solutions?

Reading: Cryptography
If you are amongst the one billion people who use WhatsApp, you may have noticed that the app now has end to end encryption. The latest version of WhatsApp with a 256 bit encryption feature means that only the sender and the recipient can read the 64 billion messages sent daily, and the high level of secure encryption technology makes it impossible for even the producers of WhatsApp to access messages. This move by WhatsApp was a reaction to the FBI and Apple case to unlock an iPhone 5 used by a terrorist. It has not been a popular development for authorities in the UAE where swearing or sending inappropriate pictures on WhatsApp can result in a huge fine or a jail sentence. The use of similar technology which encrypts information such as VPNs is banned in the UAE. Globally there are varying political approaches to Public Key Cryptography (PKC). Japan and the Netherlands support strong encryption and give their citizens privacy of communication, whereas others such as Turkey and Pakistan have laws against PKC.
Claimed by the Independent newspaper to be the country with the most spying powers, Britain has recently made changes to their law on encryption. In November 2016, Britain passed the Investigatory Powers Act, which gives police, security services and the government more access to private data. The government says this act gives them power to keep the public safe as it provides ‘transparency and privacy protection’. Opposed by companies such as Apple and Twitter, the act requires internet companies to save data on users for 12 months and to break into devices if requested by the government. Apple’s CEO Tim Cook is a strong defender of encryption, and says there is no trade-off between privacy and national security. He claimed ‘the bill could give the government the power to demand Apple alters its messaging service works”, and claimed the public should be able to keep personal data private.
There is also international competition to develop the strongest crypto algorithms, which would be challenging for other governments to break. In response to terror attacks in Paris and California, law enforcement agencies in the UK want access to encrypted communications and the US is also exploring similar measures “to make it harder for terrorists to use technology to escape from justice”, according to Obama. The FBI wants to debate the use of encryption on communications with technology companies, reasoning that it can compromise safety.
In fact, PKC was originally classified as munition in the US but is now widely available and easy to use, for example Google and Yahoo both offer plug-ins. Privacy and security are now the main feature of apps and software, for example SnapChat has built end-to-end encryption into its service, so third parties and not even the app makers can access the pictures. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), a popular encryption service, was initially restricted by the American government and in 1993 they introduced an encryption service with government access called Clipper chip, which quickly failed.
PKC allows users privacy in communications and financial transactions and it can protect against message forgery and spoofing, or changing messages, as users can know from a signature who information or communication comes from. This means that users can have a guarantee about the origin of information. PKC prevents law enforcement and governments from having access to user information and communications. Some people believe that governments should be able to access business, political and social activity on the Internet to monitor for crime and terrorism.
Weak encryption has been suggested as a compromise, or encryption which allows government access through a backdoor. History has shown this doesn’t work with the Clipper chip and weak encryption has been criticized for being pointless. Fair cryptosystems might be the answer, which allow strong encryption but certain information could be decrypted with a court order. However, the user might not co-operate, or might be in another country and so not fall under the same regulations. Also, the algorithm might be unbreakable.
Meanwhile technological developments continually change the possibilities such as Chrome Canary by Google, a new browser designed to protect users from next-next-generation cryptographic attacks. Recently, quantum-based random number generators are being developed which could offer the most secure encryption keys. WhatsApp has said that end to end encryption will be more widely used in the future as ‘it will ultimately represent the future of personal communication.’


Altaher, N. (2016, April 10). WhatsApp encryption: Online criminal activity no longer tapped. Retrieved from Gulf News : http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/crime/whatsapp-encryption-online-criminal-activity-no-longer-tapped-1.1707921
Carey, S. (2016, November 2). Snooper’s Charter: What you need to know about the Investigatory Powers Act. Retrieved from Computer World : http://www.computerworlduk.com/security/draft-investigatory-powers-bill-what-you-need-know-3629116/
Denning, D. (1996, January 6). The Future of Cryptography . Retrieved January 14, 2017, from Internet Security Review : http://encryption_policies.tripod.com/us/denning_1095_future.htm
Everington, J. (2016, April 18). WhatsApp locks in security with encryption of messages. Retrieved January 14, 2017, from The National : www.thenational.ae/business/technology/whatsapp-locks-in-security-with-encryption-of-messages
Gallagher, S. (2015, December 15). What the government should’ve learned about backdoors from the Clipper Chip . Retrieved January 14, 2017, from Ars Technica: http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2015/12/what-the-government-shouldve-learned-about-backdoors-from-the-clipper-
Griffin, A. (2016, November 18). Investigatory Powers Bill: ‘Snoopers Charter 2’ to pass into law, giving Government sweeping spying powers. Retrieved from The Independent : http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/snoopers-charter-2-investigatory-powers-bill-parliament-lords-what-does-it-mean-a7423866.html
Slack, A. (2015, June 18). WhatsApp Can Land You in Jail in the UAE. Retrieved from InfoSecurity: https://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/slackspace/whatsapp-can-land-you-in-jail-in/


Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.