INTERACTION, INPUT AND FEEDBACK
The learners Qing and Xiu, (L1 Chinese; L2 English) took part in two discussions: one with each other and one with Sophie, a native-speaker teacher. A part of each discussion involving Qing is transcribed below, each having an equal contribution from the learner QIN (53 utterances).
In class we will identify the interaction moves in the data: confirmation checks, clarification requests, comprehension checks, co-constructions and recasts. You are going to evaluate the exchange from QIN’s point of view:
1. Complete the following table:
Interaction moves Number in conversation 1 with NNS interlocutor Number in conversation 2 with NS interlocutor
Clarification requests by QIN
Confirmation checks by QIN
Co-construction of QIN’s utterance
Recast of QIN’s utterance
2. Analyse and evaluate 4 to 6 of the interaction exchanges with respect to learning opportunities for QIN. Choose exchanges including a variety of interaction moves. Does the exchange help her to comprehend the input provided by her interlocutor? Or does it give her useful feedback on her own output?
3. Overall, which conversation seems to provide her with a better context for learning? Why?
(CHOICE A) CODED TRANSCRIPT
• Read through the statements below. Again, they are about polite or appropriate behaviour in Britain. Some are true, some are partly true and some are completely false.
• Say what you think about each one and give your reasons. Also, what people would normally do in your country.
1. When you want to buy a drink in a pub, you can get a attention by waving your money and saying loudly ‘barman’ or ‘barmaid’.
2. When you go to someone’s house, you should take off your shoes in the hall.
3. British people normally give a tip of about 10 to 15% in restaurants, taxis and at the hairdresser.
Participants: QIN Qing Student; XIU Xiu Student
[/] self- repetition or self-reformulation
+, Continuing utterance after interruption
Transcript Interaction move
1. *QIN: have you ever been to pubs .
2. *XIU: never in Britain.
3. *QIN: yes me too.
4. *QIN: and in China?
5. *XIU: i [/] i went there once with my sister.
6. *QIN: oh you [/] so you went with your sister in China but.
7. *XIU: have you been to once .
8. *QIN: uh no but uh no i [/] yes i have ever been to .
9. *QIN: but uh uh i never [/] um i never buy [/] uh buy something to drink.
10. *QIN: so uh what’s your opinion about the first one.
11. *XIU: um i think first one is completely false .
12. *XIU: um um even i don’t go pub but uh from the words barman or barmaid [/] uh +/.
13. *QIN: i think it’s unpolite.
14. *XIU: +, yeah from the words i think it’s not polite way to uh ask the [/] uh the server to [/] to serve you . Recast
15. *QIN: ok i think it’s [/] uh i think it’s certainly not polite.
16. *QIN: but i think in some case in [/] in Europe country it could happen [/] this kind of uh situation it could happen .
17. *QIN: and uh the server may not think anything like.
18. *QIN: this man is unpolite to me .
19. *QIN: i think this could happen.
20. *QIN: but uh overall it not polite .
21. *QIN: yeah but uh in China [/] i think um in Britain it could[/] uh it could be accepted by people.
22. *QIN: but in China we don’t have this.
23. *QIN: what do you think?
24. *XIU: yeah actually i have no idea of this [/] this one .
25. *QIN: um it could be because of the culture maybe.
26. *QIN: and i think [/] in China if you say that the [/] the [/]the man who serve you will get angry i think .
27. *XIU: i think one example with the China we call the waitress like uh xx [% Chinese word] .
28. *QIN: uh we do [/] oh yeah xx [% Chinese word].
29. *XIU: yeah this [/] this word um in some area uh it will be [/] it will be +/. Co-construction
30. *QIN: misunderstanding.
31. *XIU: +, yeah misunderstanding the other way .
32. *XIU: and uh uh if you say that word maybe uh the people will hate you uh.
33. *QIN: yes [/] yeah um and the next one.
34. *XIU: [% reads: when you go to someone’s house you should take off your shoes in the hall ].
35. *QIN: i don’t think so.
36. *QIN: uh but when [/] when you go to your house i need to change another shoe +/.
37. *XIU: yeah i know your meaning .
38. *XIU: um uh this is the culture [/] related with culture.
39. *QIN: yes um it depends on the [/] the habit of um.
40. *XIU: the way of life. recast
41. *QIN: i think in Britain [/] oh i don’t know about Britain.
42. *QIN: but in China we [/] we don’t need to [/] uh it depends on which um.
43. *QIN: um i don’t know how to say .
44. *XIU: um i think uh in Britain [/] in Britain people uh won’t take off your [/] take off shoes uh when they go someone else house .
45. *XIU: uh um this is [/] i know.
46. *XIU: but uh maybe some British do this or.
47. *XIU: yeah i don’t know.
48. *QIN: yeah i think it’s some some it’s same [/] um China is same with Britain maybe .
49. *QIN: it depends on uh uh some [/] some people will tell you to take off your shoes .
50. *QIN: and some don’t have that habit.
51. *QIN: it um totally depends on the. Co-construction
52. *QIN: i don’t know how +/.
53. *XIU: customer.
54. *QIN: not [/] not customer.
55. *QIN: it’s the [/] the people who live in the house.
56. *QIN: i don’t [/] i don’t remember.
57. *XIU: host.
58. *QIN: yeah [/] yeah it depends on the host.
59. *XIU: oh i see yeah.
60. *XIU: but in China usually uh we’ll take off the shoes .
61. *QIN: yes but it [/] it is now .
62. *QIN: but in the past we don’t have that habit .
63. *XIU: because we [/] uh nowadays the um we Chinese all use the [/] many Chinese use the [/] um the wood floor .
64. *QIN: wood floor [/] wood floor.
65. *XIU: yeah wood floor.
66. *QIN: i don’t know. Clarification request
67. *XIU: uh like you know wood.
68. *QIN: yeah.
69. *XIU: yeah the floor.
70. *XIU: wood put on the ground to +/.
71. *QIN: oh yeah [/] yeah [/] i see yes.
72. *QIN: so it is not uh &p polite it is um uh [/] it is um um not impolite or polite.
73. *QIN: it depends on the host i think .
74. *QIN: and number three.
75. *XIU: 0 [% Reads: British people normally give a tip about].
76. *QIN: ah yes this [/] this is true i think .
77. *XIU: this is true.
78. *XIU: um in the past uh many people do this .
79. *QIN: but now.
80. *XIU: but now [/] um but now it’s depend on the [/] uh the [/] the waitress or the waiter .
81. *XIU: how is it [/] how is um the [/] um the behaviour to serve you .
82. *QIN: yeah and uh i think [/] um give [/] uh give tip in restaurants is more than in taxis i think or hairdresser.
83. *QIN: uh restaurant or another xx if you don’t give the tip is that impolite or polite .
84. *QIN: which do you think is .
85. *XIU: i think [/] i said it’s depend on the people .
86. *XIU: if they are serving very good do this.
87. *XIU: yeah it’s very good.
88. *XIU: but if the [/] the serving um you don’t like it .
89. *QIN: so you mean you have right to [/] not to give them the tip. No – completing the thought
90. *XIU: yeah of course.
91. *XIU: uh i don’t like the way to [/] to give all the time because it’s depend on uh the person [/] the way to serve you if you like or not .
92. *QIN: yes you feel good [/] you feel good after the [/] the &ser service.
1. People who work in shops sometimes call customers ‘love’ or ‘darling’, even if they have never met them before.
2. If you are invited to someone’s house for dinner, you should take a bottle of wine and maybe some chocolates.
3. British people shake hands with friends or colleagues every time they meet.
Participants: QIN Qing Student; SOP Sophie Teacher
[/] self- repetition or self-reformulation
+, Continuing utterance after interruption
Transcript Interaction move
1. *SOP: so what do you think about the first one?
2. *QIN: uh i want to say uh darling is heard always .
3. *SOP: yes do you in shops and things.
4. *QIN: yeah but love um i’ve not heard that word so.
5. *SOP: what do you think about it when you hear people calling each other darling in shops?
6. *QIN: uh if the uh i always like [/] the uh old [/] old lady she say that .
7. *QIN: it’s feel very warm and uh um like [/] very like friends you know before .
8. *SOP: it’s quite friendly isn’t it. Recast
9. *QIN: yeah especially the [/] uh the old lady [/] lady is a stranger .
10. *QIN: you not even uh meet her before .
11. *QIN: but you feel very comfortable and uh very nice like same .
12. *SOP: yeah like on an equal basis do you think you feel differently if maybe a younger person was to say that or maybe like a young man or something would it feel different. Recast
13. *QIN: quite different i think.
14. *QIN: uh yeah uh i’ve never been heard darling from a young man or .
15. *QIN: so [/] but i imagine if [/] uh if [/] uh if a young man uh say this to me uh i would feel uh uncomfortable or unpolite.
16. *SOP: yes this is different feeling isn’t it i mean in China is there like an equivalent i don’t know if you have a term like love or darling or do people always greet themselves in the same way is it more formal in China.
17. *QIN: no it’s [/] it’s [/] it’s in family [/] yeah some family .
18. *QIN: but uh in my family we [/] we do not say like very [/] uh like darling or love this kind of very close word .
19. *QIN: uh &u usually we have this uh nickname yeah nickname [/] uh the nickname maybe instead of this kind of word .
20. *SOP: because it’s quite familiar isn’t it and friendly what about the second one when you go to someone’s house for dinner you should take a bottle of wine or maybe some chocolates i don’t know have you been to a British house where you +… No – adding another idea rather than correcting or checking
21. *QIN: not yet.
22. *QIN: but somebody uh uh was invited by us.
23. *QIN: and they [/] um i saw them to take a bottle of wine to come to our house .
24. *SOP: were they British.
25. *QIN: no Chinese.
26. *SOP: oh Chinese and did you expect that or were you surprised.
27. *QIN: i expect that .
28. *QIN: oh expect? Clarification request
29. *SOP: did you think they would do that or were you very surprised?
30. *QIN: uh no i didn’t.
31. *QIN: my first time uh to saw it um i think it’s good uh because uh in China it’s have the same way to uh go somewhere [/] someone else house .
32. *QIN: and they will uh take some presents for the host or some the host[/] the children of the host.
33. *QIN: um um but in this country take wine .
34. *QIN: is [/] i like it.
35. *SOP: and in China what sort of presents would you.
36. *QIN: yes some [/] some healthy food like and uh [/] healthy food and uh uh clothes for children and uh clothes toy.
37. *SOP: obviously maybe not chocolates if it’s only healthy food would you ever take chocolates.
38. *QIN: oh young people usually yeah usually do it [/] usually um uh send chocolate to their uh lover.
39. *SOP: do you think that if you went someone’s house for dinner and didn’t take anything it would be rude or would it be quite normal.
40. *QIN: quite this question uh i’m not [/] uh in China i don’t like the way they send a lot of things because i think this is so [/] kind of custom [% mispron so like customer] .
41. *QIN: maybe it’s [/] for them it’s the pressure to do it .
42. *QIN: it’s not to do it from your own willing .
43. *QIN: yeah so i don’t like that kind of +…
44. *QIN: i uh if if [/] if the [/] um the people who was invited um you do take some present .
45. *QIN: and uh uh and if not uh i think i can uh feel that from your own willing .
46. *QIN: we will be [/] uh we will be [/] uh feel good.
47. *QIN: if it’s not from his or her willing i don’t like it.
48. *SOP: yeah you’ve got to want to do it haven’t you because as you say i usually feel happier if i take some wine. Recast
49. *QIN: yeah it’s from your own willing .
50. *QIN: the people you like or not .
51. *SOP: and you’re pleased to go and you want to give them yeah i agree what about British people shaking hands with friends or colleagues have you noticed how people greet each other here a colleague is somebody that you work with.
52. *QIN: oh usually it’s hug .
53. *SOP: really have you seen people hug each other.
54. *QIN: yeah i see people hug each other .
55. *QIN: um not [/] uh i [/] i see people maybe shake hands in the formal [/] formal uh situation like uh um like they work together[/] like the workplace.
56. *QIN: they shake hands like normally.
57. *SOP: but you mean like every day or maybe when they first meet. Clarification request
58. *QIN: first meet [/] um first meet um i [/] in my opinion is good shake hands and hug .
59. *SOP: and hug is that what happens in China do you hug each other when you meet.
60. *QIN: uh well no uh we shake hands normally.
61. *QIN: but it’s uh it’s father [/] it’s father status .
62. *QIN: but uh like uh our gender if we meet first time we just say like [/] like this [% gesture waving].
63. *SOP: yes you just wave to each other. Coconstruction
64. *QIN: yeah and [/] uh and uh i smile.
65. *SOP: yes what about with your friends what do you do when you meet your friends.
66. *QIN: uh no.
67. *SOP: you don’t shake their hands. Clarification request
68. *QIN: no.
69. *SOP: so do you kiss them or hug them.
70. *QIN: no we sometimes [/] if we long time you know uh to see we will um like just uh uh touch it like [/] uh familiar way to touch it .
71. *QIN: and uh this is like [% demonstrates].
72. *SOP: yes and have you noticed um here i think sometimes in Britain we don’t really know what to do but shaking hands is sometimes the easy way at the beginning of +…
73. *QIN: so you will shake hands with colleague just . Confirmation check
74. *SOP: only if i was meeting them probably for the first time i’d shake their hand but like i don’t shake Sarah’s hand every day so you need to be meeting someone for the first time and then after that it’s a bit difficult to know what to do do you feel it feels different here do you notice the people greet each other differently.
75. *QIN: of course different.
76. *QIN: but um the uh from i i [/] i live here for this period time.
77. *QIN: i feel that because China have a sentence say that every land to grow different people .
78. *SOP: that’s a very nice expression.
1. Second language learning theories
• by Mitchell, Rosamond; Myles, Florence; Marsden, Emma
Chapter 6 Interaction
2. Second language acquisition: an introductory course
• by Gass, Susan M.; Selinker, Larry
• Essential Reading
Chapter 10 Input interaction and output
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.