- Aggregate Demand and Fiscal Policy in Recessionary Times
[Suggested word count for Q1: 400 to 500 words]
2020 was a difficult year, and the economy was technically in a recession.
However, the economy has been recovering from this recession due to the
timely and effective fiscal stimulus measures adopted by the government.
A. Use the AD (Aggregate Demand) model to show the impact of the
decline in consumption and investment on the economy in 2020. Show
how the fiscal stimulus measures that the government adopted, helped
the economy to stabilise in 2021. On the same diagram, illustrate and
explain the process of the multiplier.
B. Now assume hypothetically, if the government would have cut the
government spending to reduce the levels of debt and to improve their
budget balance in 2021. Comment on what would be the possible
implications of such an early withdrawal of support in the economy. (No
diagram required for this question).
Q2 – Unemployment and the WS/PS model in a Post-COVID-19 world
[Suggested word count for Q2: 300 to 400 words]
Pandemic containment policies have cut global production which has led to
rising unemployment in 2020. However, some predict that the coronavirus
pandemic might stimulate innovation and help workers become more
productive, e.g. see:
How Innovation Is Driving Productivity During And Beyond The COVID-19 Pandemic
Have we just stumbled on the biggest productivity increase of the century?
In this context, use the WS/PS model to illustrate and explain in some detail
what happens to an economy’s equilibrium unemployment in a post-COVID-19
Q3 – Inflation and the Phillips Curve
[Suggested word count for Q3: 300 to 400 words]
Assume an economy at labour market equilibrium with stable prices (inflation is
zero) prior to COVID-19. Due to COVID-19, investment declines, and the
economy moves into recession with high unemployment. Use the WS/PS/AD
model to show why and how this would result in a negative bargaining gap.
Q4 – Monetary Policy Response to the Recent Negative Shock
[Suggested word count for Q4: 300 to 400 words]
Expansionary monetary policy has been widely used as a tool recently by the
central Banks around the world in response to the global pandemic led by
COVID-19. However, there is an argument that the central banks will probably
need to aim for a higher level of inflation, as advanced capitalist economies
attempt to recover from the negative shock, according to these articles:
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Explain how the transmission mechanism of monetary policy works in a
recessionary environment to stimulate aggregate demand (AD)? How effective
were the reductions in nominal interest rates for Australian economy in the
current global pandemic that started in 2020?
The marketing strategy was accompany by background lobbying effort to talk country in granting access to its airport and dedication to its human resource management by investing 20million on training facilities. This was paid off at 1973 when the airline was ranked third in the Far East Asian region. The company then are force to conduct cost cutting program to struggle with surge of oil price on 1973~1977. Surviving this, in 1977 the airlines joint operation with British Airway to provide Concord jet service between Singapore and London, the service was terminated in 1980. This however was deem a marketing success as Singapore Airline were make famous around the globe with this achievement. At the same period, new Changi Airport was constructed, leading to a higher service standard being provided by Singapore Airline. This has paid off and Singapore Airlines were the top preference in Asia-Pacific Region in 1981. The airline follows a steady internal growth strategy in the 1980s, expanding its size, renewing fleet and adding route. SIA was privatised on 1985, listing on Singapore stock exchange with Temasek Holding owning a 63% initially and gradually reduced to 54% in 2008. During 1990s, the company follows a more aggressive growth pattern, two subsidiaries were form in 1992, Silk Air to close the gap between its route networks and cater to a lower cost market segment, SIA Engineering is form to increase productivity and pursuit better business opportunity. Globalisation in the 1990s have also prompt the airline to expand overseas, invest in other airline company and forming new subsidiary in other country to provide better support on is airlines. The Asia financial crises at the end of 1990s prompt the airline to review its operation cost again, cutting down on not profitable route. [St James Press, 1999]. Against conventional wisdom, the company have utilized its strong financial resources during financial crisis to make capital investment, spending 300million to renovate cabins of its aircraft. This had benefit the airlines as the price level during the crisis is low and the airlines have more bargaining power over its supplier [Scott, 2008]>GET ANSWER