1. What is a practical definition density altitude – one that would clearly explain the concept to a general aviation pilot-in-training?
2. What are the main factors that affect density altitude, and what changes in each of those factors cause the density altitude to increase? What are the hazardous effects of a high-density altitude on aircraft performance?
3. Is density altitude only an issue at high elevation airports? Explain. What season of the year is density altitude generally highest, and what time(s) of day during this season are high-density altitude conditions most critical? Explain.
4. What should be the precautions that are taken, and preparations made, when planning a flight in high-density altitude conditions?
Theory and Prediction: This lab was done to analyze and grasp how dissemination and osmosis functions in different molarity of sucrose. Likewise how the arrangements pervades through various mediums. Techniques: Section A: Diffusion and Osmosis: A 30 cm bit of 2.5 cm dialysis that has been absorbed water was acquired. The start of tubing was tied off, framing a pack with an open end that was rubbed between the fingers till isolated. 15mL of the 15% glucose and 1% starch arrangement was put into the pack and the completion of the dialysis sack was tied off, abandoning some space for the advancement of the substance inside the dialysis sack. The shade of the arrangement was recorded and was tried for the nearness of glucose. Refined water was filled a 250 mL measuring utencil (66% of a glass) with around 4mL of Lugol's answer (IKI). The shade of the sucrose in the container was recorded and was tried for glucose. The dialysis sack was then submerged into the measuring glass of arrangement and left to remain for around 30 minutes (or until there was a shading change in the dialysis pack or beaker).Once the pack was finished absorbing the recepticle, the last shade of the arrangement taken care of and the container was recorded. The fluid taken care of and the measuring glass was then tried for the presence of glucose. Part B: Osmosis Six pieces of 30 cm presoaked dialysis tubing were acquired. For each strip, an end was tied and approximately 25 mL of various arrangements (refined water, 0.2 M sucrose, 0.4 M sucrose, 0.6 M sucrose, 0.8 M sucrose and 1.0 M sucrose) was immersed their individual sacks. A large portion of the rest of the air was then expelled from each sack by bringing the pack between two fingers and tied off at the opened end. The outside of each pack was then showered to wash away any sucrose that spilled when filling the sack. The outside of each sack was then smeared and the underlying mass of each pack was weighed and recorded. Refined water was then filled into six 250 mL measuring glasses. Each sack was then risen into one of the six filled recepticle and the measuring utencils were named by which pack of arrangement was developed in it. The packs remained in the container for 30 minutes. At the point when the time was up, each pack was expelled, blotched and the mass of each sack was recorded. The mass contrast was ascertained and after that utilizing the condition: Percent change in mass = Final Mass – Initial Mass/Initial Mass x 100. The individual and the class normal of the percent change in mass were then diagramed. Part C: Water Potential 100 mL of the given arrangement was filled six diverse named 250 mL measuring glass. The potato was then cut into plates that were just around 3 cm thick. A plug borer (around 5 mm in distance across) was at that point used to cut four potato chambers for every measuring utencil, an aggregate of 24 potato centers. Until the point when the mass of centers were weighed by fours and recorded, the potato centers were kept in a secured measuring glass. Four centers were then put into every container of sucrose arrangement. Saran wrap was then given to cover the measuring glasses, anticipating vanishing when left to stand medium-term. The following day, the centers were then expelled from the measuring glasses and were smeared tenderly on a paper towel. Their aggregate mass was then decided and recorded. The mass contrast was ascertained and after that utilizing the condition: Percent change in mass = Final Mass – Initial Mass/Initial Mass x 100. The individual and the class normal of the percent change in mass were then charted. Part D: Calculation of Water Potential from Experimental Data Decide the solute, weight and water capability of the sucrose arrangement given and answer the inquiries regarding the likelihood if zucchini centers were utilized with the sucrose arrangements. Results: Section A: Diffusion and Osmosis Table 1.1-Presence of Glucose in Water through a Dialysis Bag Introductory Contents Arrangement Color Nearness of Glucose Introductory Last Introductory Last Pack 15% GLUCOSE and 1% STARCH Clear Clear Truly Truly Measuring utencil H20 + IKI Yellow (an olive oil shading) Clear No Truly Part B: Osmosis Table 1.2: Individual Data of Change in Mass of Six Different Dialysis Bags Substance in Dialysis Bag Beginning Mass Last Mass Mass Difference Percent Change in Mass a) refined water 18.15 g 14.76 g 3.39 g - 18.68% b) 0.2 M 19.40 g 17.33 g 2.07 g - 10.67% c) 0.4 M 18.87 g 19.37 g - 0.5 g 2.65% d) 0.6 M 19.83 g 19.68 g - 0.15 g - 0.5% e) 0.8 M 21.91 g 20.05 g - 0.869 g - 8.2% f) 1.0 M 18.78 g 18.07 g - 0.71 g - 3.7% Table 1.3: Class Data of Percent Change in Mass of Dialysis Bags Gathering 1 Gathering 2 Gathering 3 Gathering 4 Gathering 5 Gathering 6 Gathering 7 Gathering 8 Add up to Class Average Refined Water - 18.68% - 2.2% - 7.0% - 7.2% - 35.1 - 8.8% 0.2 M - 10.67% - 22.3% - 5.2% 1.8% - 36.4% - 9.1% 0.4 M 2.65% 6.2% 2.5% 3.9% 15.3% 3.8% 0.6 M - 0.76% - 3.8% - 4.0% - 6.55% - 15.2% - 3.8% 0.8 M - 4.1% - 26.3% - 1.6% - 3.78% - 35.95% - 8.95% 1.0 M - 3.78% - 3.27% - 8.7% - 29.4% - 45.2% - 11.3% Gathering 2, 4, 6 and 8 don't have any information for refined water, 0.2M Sucrose, and 0.4M Sucrose and gathering 1, 3, 4 and 7 don't have any information for 0.6M Sucrose, 0.8M Sucrose and 1.0M Sucrose in view of the absence of time. Along these lines, bunch 1 and 2 were combined up, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, and 7 and 8 to trade information. Part C: Water Potential Table 1.4: Individual Data of Change in Mass of Potato Cores in Six Different Sucrose Solution Substance in Beaker Introductory Mass Last Mass Mass Difference Percent Change in Mass Class Average % Change in Mass a) Distilled Water 2.39g 2.95g 0.56g 23.4% 23.3% b) 0.2M Sucrose 2.41g 2.69g 0.28g 11.6% 8.4% c) 0.4M Sucrose 2.47g 2.38g - 0.09g - 3.6% - 3.7% d) 0.6M Sucrose 2.33g 1.98g - 0.35g - 15.0% - 13.5% e) 0.8M Sucrose 2.46g 2.05g - 0.41g - 16.7% - 19.9% f) 1.0M Sucrose 2.49g 1.95g - 0.54g - 21.7% - 20.8% Table 1.5: Class Data of Percent Change in Mass of Potato Cores in Six Different Sucrose Solution Gathering 1 Gathering 2 Gathering 3 Gathering 4 Gathering 5 Gathering 6 Gathering 7 Gathering 8 Add up to Class Normal Refined Water 23.4% 18.9% 23.2% 27.5% 93% 23.3% 0.2M 11.6% 6.8% 5.0% 10.1% 33.5% 8.4% 0.4M - 3.6% - 3.7% - 7.0% - 0.4% - 14.7% - 3.7% 0.6M - 15.02% - 13.5% - 11.16% - 14.3% - 54% - 13.5% 0.8M - 16.67% - 22.5% - 20.33% - 20.2% - 79.7% - 19.9% 1.0M - 21.69% - 24.3% - 24.39% - 12.9% - 83.3% - 20.8% Gathering 2, 4, 6 and 8 don't have any information for refined water, 0.2M Sucrose, and 0.4M Sucrose and gathering 1, 3, 4 and 7 don't have any information for 0.6M Sucrose, 0.8M Sucrose and 1.0M Sucrose in view of the absence of time. Along these lines, amass 1 and 2 were combined up, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, and 7 and 8 to trade information. Part D: Calculation of Water Potential from Experimental Data Examination: Section A: Diffusion and Osmosis From table 1.1 in this piece of the lab, it is seen that IKI is streaming into the sack and glucose is streaming out of the pack. That is a direct result of dispersion and osmosis. Knowing about this procedure is because of the shading change of the sack, hence demonstrating that IKI has infiltrated the pack. By testing the measuring glass for the presence of glucose, it was discovered that the glucose penetrated through the dialysis sack, blending with the IKI and H2O in the container. This is conceivable on the grounds that as expressed osmosis is a fan out type of dissemination, in which it is the dispersion of water through a specifically porous film and glucose is one of the substance that can experience. IKI alongside glucose is sufficiently modest to enter and leave the dialysis pack. Part B: Osmosis Both the individual and class information of percent change in mass is appeared in chart 1.1. To get the percent change in mass, the underlying mass was subtracted from the last mass. The distinction is then isolated by the underlying mass and 100 is then increased to the remainder. The item is then the percent change in mass. Osmosis is available because of the adjustment in mass of the dialysis sack. The mass is diverse for each pack as a result of the sucrose in the sacks distinctive molarity. That sets up the measure of water that advances all through the sack, which at that point changes the mass. Part C: Water Potential From testing the potato centers in various sucrose arrangement, diagram 1.2 represents that on the best fit line, the molar centralization of sucrose, the sucrose molarity that demonstrates the mass of the potato centers does not change, is 0.4M. So the lower the convergence of the molar grouping of sucrose, the level of the potato centers' mass increments and anything with a higher centralization of the molar grouping of sucrose the rate in the potato centers' mass abatements. This is all since atoms of any sucrose with a higher grouping of 0.4M are excessively incredible, making it impossible to enter or exit into the potato centers. Part D: Calculation of Water Potential from Experimental Data It is given that the solute capability of the sucrose arrangement is figured by utilizing ψs= iCRT. Ψs is the solute potential, the variable "I" speaks to the ionization steady, factor "C" implies the molar focus, variable "R" remaining for the weight consistent (R= 0.0831 liter bars/mole oK), T is the temperature oK (273+ oC of arrangement). Since it is the solute capability of sucrose that must be discovered, "I" is 1.0, because of the way that sucrose does not ionize in water. From the data of "I", "C" is resolved to be 1.0 mole/liter. So the issue that has 1.0M sugar solut>GET ANSWER