L.N. is a 49-year-old white woman with a history of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and migraine headaches. The patient was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 9 years ago when she presented with mild polyuria and polydipsia. L.N. is 5′4″ and has always been on the large side, with her weight fluctuating between 165 and 185 lb.
Initial treatment for her diabetes consisted of an oral sulfonylurea with the rapid addition of metformin. Her diabetes has been under fair control with a most recent hemoglobin A1c of 7.4%.
Hypertension was diagnosed 5 years ago when blood pressure (BP) measured in the office was noted to be consistently elevated in the range of 160/90 mmHg on three occasions. L.N. was initially treated with lisinopril, starting at 10 mg daily and increasing to 20 mg daily, yet her BP control has fluctuated.
One year ago, microalbuminuria was detected on an annual urine screen, with 1,943 mg/dl of microalbumin identified on a spot urine sample. L.N. comes into the office today for her usual follow-up visit for diabetes. Physical examination reveals an obese woman with a BP of 154/86 mmHg and a pulse of 78 bpm.
- What are the effects of controlling BP in people with diabetes?
- What is the target BP for patients with diabetes and hypertension?
- Which antihypertensive agents are recommended for patients with diabetes?
example in China, in order to curb the population rush in the country, the government has pressed upon having one baby per family. From the mathematical view-point, the objective truth lies in the fact that in order to restore the habitat around us it is vital to take such a step in the interest of the future generations. From the ethical stance, their version of truth is completely antipodal because the basis of a truth-value in this statement is a reflection of ones emotional self rather than a projection of a logical mind. In ethics, hence, an argument is a rhetoric affair where people need to be persuaded what I believe rather than proving the trueness involved in my proposition. I feel that my observation into this example is a projection of the extent to which one event holds a different stance from the spectacle of the truth value supporting the claim. What defines a stark line of difference between math and ethics as deciphered from the above example is the conflicting nature of moral opinions and that there are no observable facts to base the truth value on in an ethical viewpoint. The difference in moral opinions amongst people may be lead by the cognitive apparatus of the individual. Since ethics is considered to be a matter of personal concern, influenced by previous knowledge and experiences of the individual, the moral differences would explain that in ethics, there is no underlying truth to be discovered. But what defines morality in ethics is the position of ethical relativism, the belief that ethical view-points are relative to one culture or another. One of the most indignant moral issues at hand is abortion. Every individual agrees the medical procedures which culminate into an abortion. But there seems to be an equally repulsive response when it comes to agreeing the morality of abortion. In short, the matter of abortion has its agreement on medical science but doesn’t touch upon the area of medical ethics. So, at all points of time, the entire scenario is a relative representation of a statement and it is an appearance but not the reality. I have always observed myself making hollow as well as emotionally driven promises and always have the statement “Promises ought to be kept” at the back of my mind. This seems to be a moral principle, but it cannot be categorized as a factual claim. But on close observation, the truth factor within the statement shows close relations between such a statement and a mathematical proposition. If the phenomenon of promise is known and the true essence of its obligation is understood, there exists a relation between ideas. Though relativism and subjectivism are parallel in certain terms, art as an area of knowledge has been considered as a representation of reality. Friedrich Nietzsche aphorism “We have art in order not to die of the truth”, self-consciously asserts the fact that this world has art in order to live the truth.>GET ANSWER