Diabetes mellitus is a major world health problem. Treatment and management of diabetics is a very significant issue for governments, society and both pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies.

1. Why is the disease given the name diabetes mellitus? How does diabetes mellitus differ from diabetes insipidus?

2. Individuals with the diabetes mellitus are classified into two main groups. What are they and what is the basis of the classification system used?

3. How are patients diagnosed as diabetics? What treatment options are most used to manage this condition?

4. What changes in the metabolism of glucose and fat (triglycerides) are observed in this disease? What symptoms might a diabetic show as a result of these metabolic changes and why do these occur?

5. Two overnight fasting patients, A & B, were each given a dose of 75g of glucose at time zero. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 240 minutes after ingestion of the glucose using a glucose specific assay. The brief procedure for this assay is: –
a. Add 5.0 ml of assay reagent to sufficient tubes for the assay
b. Add 0. 1 ml of each glucose standard to a tube of assay reagent
c. Add 0. 1 ml of each test serum to a tube of assay reagent.
d. Mix the contents of each tube and read the absorbance at 625 nm.
The results obtained are shown in the two tables below.

Table 1 – standards
Glucose standard (mmol/L) Absorbance @ 625 nm
0 0.02
3 0.21
6 0.43
9 0.65
12 0.83

Table 2 – patient results
Time (min) Absorbance-Patient A Absorbance-Patient B
0 0.26 0.47
30 0.51 0.63
60 0.25 0.8
90 0.23 0.76
120 0.24 0.63
240 0.3 0.58

Plot a standard graph of absorbance at 625 nm against glucose concentration You must use Excel. (I give you the answer below (chart))

Determine the concentration of glucose in each patient serum sample and plot glucose concentration against the time over which the samples were obtained. (Also, I give you the answer below)

Series 1: concentration of patient A Series 2: concentration of patient B

The result of glucose concentration(mmole/L) for both patients A&B
Time (min) Absorbance-Patient A
Conc.
(Series 1) Absorbance-Patient B
Conc.
(Series 2)
0 0.26 3.55167394 0.47 6.6084425
30 0.51 7.19068413 0.63 8.93740902
60 0.25 3.40611354 0.8 11.411936
90 0.23 3.11499272 0.76 10.8296943
120 0.24 3.26055313 0.63 8.93740902
240 0.3 4.13391557 0.58 8.20960699

Q: Comment on the results for the two patients in a table above. (Answer this question please)

6. What potential long-term problems would a pharmacist need to be aware of when advising a diabetic client?

 

 

 

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.