Diabetes mellitus is a major world health problem. Treatment and management of diabetics is a very significant issue for governments, society and both pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies.
1. Why is the disease given the name diabetes mellitus? How does diabetes mellitus differ from diabetes insipidus?
2. Individuals with the diabetes mellitus are classified into two main groups. What are they and what is the basis of the classification system used?
3. How are patients diagnosed as diabetics? What treatment options are most used to manage this condition?
4. What changes in the metabolism of glucose and fat (triglycerides) are observed in this disease? What symptoms might a diabetic show as a result of these metabolic changes and why do these occur?
5. Two overnight fasting patients, A & B, were each given a dose of 75g of glucose at time zero. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 240 minutes after ingestion of the glucose using a glucose specific assay. The brief procedure for this assay is: –
a. Add 5.0 ml of assay reagent to sufficient tubes for the assay
b. Add 0. 1 ml of each glucose standard to a tube of assay reagent
c. Add 0. 1 ml of each test serum to a tube of assay reagent.
d. Mix the contents of each tube and read the absorbance at 625 nm.
The results obtained are shown in the two tables below.
Table 1 – standards
Glucose standard (mmol/L) Absorbance @ 625 nm
Table 2 – patient results
Time (min) Absorbance-Patient A Absorbance-Patient B
0 0.26 0.47
30 0.51 0.63
60 0.25 0.8
90 0.23 0.76
120 0.24 0.63
240 0.3 0.58
Plot a standard graph of absorbance at 625 nm against glucose concentration You must use Excel. (I give you the answer below (chart))
Determine the concentration of glucose in each patient serum sample and plot glucose concentration against the time over which the samples were obtained. (Also, I give you the answer below)
Series 1: concentration of patient A Series 2: concentration of patient B
The result of glucose concentration(mmole/L) for both patients A&B
Time (min) Absorbance-Patient A
(Series 1) Absorbance-Patient B
0 0.26 3.55167394 0.47 6.6084425
30 0.51 7.19068413 0.63 8.93740902
60 0.25 3.40611354 0.8 11.411936
90 0.23 3.11499272 0.76 10.8296943
120 0.24 3.26055313 0.63 8.93740902
240 0.3 4.13391557 0.58 8.20960699
Q: Comment on the results for the two patients in a table above. (Answer this question please)
6. What potential long-term problems would a pharmacist need to be aware of when advising a diabetic client?
Official Summary The motivation behind this report is to expand the elements which are considered by people before choosing an occupation. Picking an occupation is in fact a noteworthy choice of everybody's life and it gives a shape to where he would head in the course if time. The report starts with a rundown of different occupations which have been going since the human progress began however it has for sure changed its frame to a substantial degree. Among every one of the occupations specified, six are picked which are very not the same as each other and are very common in the general public. After those distinctive assessment criteria which are utilized by the person before choosing an occupation is made, and from all the conceivable variables, some imperative ones like salary, employer stability, intrigue, aptitudes, societal position, hazard and solace are thought to be critical. A choice lattice is readied and three respondents are requested to give their positioning to the distinctive criteria of assessment. The discoveries of the framework are talked about after that. The last piece of the report clarifies how the elements like socioeconomics and identity influence the basic leadership process while choosing an occupation. Intriguing discoveries are appeared all through the report confirming how extraordinary people are not quite the same as each other with regards to settling on choices about themselves. The report closes with a finish of the principle discoveries in the report where in identity is given a critical position as that is the thing that influences how choices are made about choice of an occupation. Rundown of potential distinctive occupations In the present time of globalization, there is a huge measure of decision accessible for individuals to look over and dissecting what their aptitudes and interests are assumes an imperative part in choosing a vocation which they need to seek after. The young can look over a wide assortment, for example, bookkeeping, rural, fund, development, inventive, instruction, social insurance, medicinal science, IT, broadcast communications, administration, fabricating, proficient, repair and support, deals and promoting, benefit related, specialized, transport and so forth (Tieger, Paul D.; Barbara Barron-Tieger 1999). The rundown of six unique occupations among numerous is as per the following: Flight Attendants Truck Drivers and Deliver Workers Legal advisors Economic Researchers Performing artists Cop Evaluative criteria or a rundown of elements that are considered by people before choosing a vocation: There are numerous elements which an individual thinks previously choosing what profession he needs to seek after. This clearly relies upon people and what his thinking are and what sort of observations he holds towards life. A few people additionally feel that they would not have the capacity to deal with guidelines from other individuals and consequently they take the alternative of being a sole proprietor and start up their own particular business. It likewise depends to a degree on how he has been raised in his family and what has been the family situation. The individual gives an idea on numerous variables previously choosing a particular vocation which incorporates interests, normal aptitudes and capacities, contemplation and extroversion, objectives and prizes, work dispositions, preparing and instruction, accessibility of employments, needs, development openings, availability, level of solace, eminence and regard offered, ease in changing to an alternate profession or moving of profession, energy for the part chose, empathy, peer weight and endorsement from home and guardians, salary, employer stability, capacity to movement, capacity to move, working hours, offices accessible, assortment, test or hazard related with the activity, economic wellbeing and so on. Among this, the accompanying are placed in the network which is thought to be vital for the determination of profession by a person. The scale utilized as a part of this choice network depends on the accompanying scale: 1-5 where one demonstrates slightest essential and five shows vital. The choice network was filled by asking 3 respondents which included me also. After a watchful investigation of this choice lattice, the accompanying focuses can be featured. Intrigue scored the most elevated score over every single distinctive occupation and diverse assessment criteria. Performing artists, legal counselors and cops are seen to have high economic wellbeing among various occupations. Flight orderlies and Drivers have not given any significance to societal position and they feel that they are not given that significance among different occupations. It was intriguing to take note of that Actors delighted in an exceptionally positive reaction from all the three respondents as they felt that notoriety joined it. In this way respondents had an inclination that they would appreciate an economic wellbeing which can't be met by some other occupation. Additionally testing of the three respondents uncovered that they were not very quick to end up performing artists as they grew up and turned out to be more develop. They had this interest when they were youthful however the guardians pressurized them to maintain their concentration to considers and don't mirror what is being finished by big names and on TV (Pittenger, D. J. 2004). Respondents likewise felt that the loved ones were gave high significance to occupations like legal counselors and cops as the family took pride if some of their relatives were in these calling then they were viewed as exceptionally taught and participated in the imperative basic leadership in the family (McCrae, R. R., Terracciano, A., Costa, P. T., and Ozer, D. J. 2006). The in all probability occupation in which the respondents are probably going to participate in view of the framework is Lawyer as the same has given a most extreme score of significance and fulfillment for the respondent. In any case, that isn't the situation with all the three respondents as none of them is a legal counselor by calling in real. The different reasons given by them were extraordinary. One of the respondents said that he couldn't think about further after school because of monetary imperatives and that drove him to fill in as a music DJ in parties and the essential reason among numerous was wage as that would convey prompt money close by after each gathering and that was required by the family right then and there. The second reason was however it was a decent calling to be related with yet include giving part of expenses as time and exertion (Asendorpf, J. B. 2003). There has been a pattern of getting into the corporate world in the wake of finishing proficient degrees like MBA, BBA among the young everywhere throughout the world. Because of the consistently expanding globalization, understudies from everywhere throughout the spots travel to another country for finishing their advanced education in lieu of landing a position in the nation they go for higher investigations. For the most part understudies from less created nations go to concentrate to created nations with an expectation of settling and relocating their for all time. In this specific case, where three respondents are examined and rank on various assessment criteria, their conduct proposes that it involves pride to have in excess of one offer when they are looking through an open door with the goal that they can assess their alternatives and select the best choice accessible (Keirsey, David 1998). They are positively overpowered in the event that they in excess of two choices to seek from and progressively if the open doors are firmly coordinated with each other. Once more, it isn't tied in with having numerous offers; it is positively about landing the best position which is right in each sense for them. Individuals have a recognition that they would begin working in an association for beginning background and afterward would switch over the activity after they have enough involvement in that line with the goal that profit the advantages of a superior occupation. The association see this mood of the youthful age adversely as they surmise that they have contributed extensively finished a drawn out stretch of time in the individual and the retu s of the same ought to be delighted in by the association for their welfare. It has been seen that activity searchers feel that no activity or occupation is ideal for them as though they do get into something which they appreciate then it is by and large not bolstered by great wages or remuneration and on the off chance that it has the help of a decent pay or compensation bundle then it would either require a high arrangement of range of abilities or instruction and at times a necessity of experience with the goal that the association contracting gets the ideal counterpart for their most extreme welfare (Bess, T.L. and Harvey, R.J. 2001). The magnificence of this general public we live in that everything is interconnected to each other and the administrations of one are required by others. To additionally clarify this point, the accompanying case can be utilized in the event that somebody approaches finances and needs to satisfy the necessities of the overall population by opening an organization for films, at that point he can open up the foundation however would need to employ proficient performing artists as he would not have the capacity to do every one of the things all alone. He would then contract a couple of performing artists and following that he would pitch the administrations to the overall population for whom at last this has been finished. He would request a cost from his clients for their excitement and would then give out the wages to his workers. Along these lines, the general public is interconnected that somebody has the ability to influence others to snicker or empower their feelings. Somebody approaches finances with the goal that it opens an organization like this one. In this way, an individual should look to pick the activity wherein he would give his most extreme yield or productivity so he turns into an extraordinary resource for himself as well as for the general public overall (Be stein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, and Roy 2008). The conduct of the respondents can be clarified utilizing the accompanying properties: Socioeconomics Age: Age plays an imperative in determination of a profession as a man is required to settle on sane choices as he gets more seasoned and not escape or affected by his or her companions. Now and then, in a youthful age the family chooses for the individual with respect to what vocation or occupation he needs to choose Sexual orientation: Females are relied upon to get into an occupation where in less measure of physical exertion is requi>GET ANSWER