- According to Julia Kristeva, “abject and abjection are my safe- guards. The primers of my culture.” In Disciples of Passion and For Bread Alone, the abject features as a way to depict and create a contour of the national culture by marking the difference between the sacred and profane, pure, impure, etc. Using one example, from the novel we have read, explain how the author uses this concept and for what purpose?
The issue of English language standards and the academic preparation programs of international students who must meet them has become an increasingly complex and controversial topic in education today. This paper will explore this issue in depth, focusing on the specific needs of foreign students at University level. It will do this by exploring the current literature and theories that dominate the field, including Computer-Assisted Language Learning, or ‘CALL’. Then it will discuss issues pertinent to planning and developing an effective language preparation program to address those needs Current literature and theories A number of theories are currently competing to dominate the field today. Among these are several entry level issues. Most professionals agree that some sort of preparatory training is absolutely necessary for first year University students of non-English speaking background (NESB). However, the agreement stops there, as they seem unable to decide on which of these programs is best. One of these programs is focused primarily on teaching students only those English language concepts that are essential for them to be successful in attaining their academic degrees. Called ‘English for Academic Purposes’ (EAP), this plan, as the name suggests, zeroes in on those skills that best ensure academic success. Academic success here is defined solely by completion of a degree. This raises issues of its true long-term worth as a sustainable skill (‘Pathways’ 2004, 2). Other plans include ‘English for Specific Purposes’ (ESP), which focuses on teaching students those aspects of English that will be most relevant their specialised professional projects. Alternate pathways to University level education are another option; this approach focuses on integrating relevant skills learned outside the academic setting in such a way that the student is given academic credit for them. A methodology similar to this is described by Sandra Elbaum in Grammar in Context: ‘Learning a language through meaningful themes and practicing it in a contextualized setting promote b>GET ANSWER