Drug and Alcohol Addiction


This is social psychology problem, in-depth term paper/research paper!! I took the liberty of looking up SOME information you may use (IF YOU WANT) and putting it in the materials files. I put all the instructions as well in the uploaded file. please follow instructions correctly. i looked up the cited sources i want to use so all you guys have to do is put the cited source in your own words and in APA citation style. NO PLAGIARISM!

Drug & Alcohol
Addiction Paper
Research paper discussing the problem of drug and alcohol addiction, its statistics, its causes, process & development, treatment etc. Use sources only from professional literature journals and books. Cite all sources in the body of the paper in APA citation style, with APA style references page at the end of paper containing a minimum of 3 to 5 professional journals reference in addition to other sources. Do not quote from your source, simply put in your own words and cite the reference. While quality of content and writing is most important, the paper should be a minimum of between 8-10 pages (double Spaced). Use Arial or New Times Roman 12 point fonts only, double space between lines and with 1 inch margin on all four sides!!
Addiction is more common than many realize. There were approximately 20.6 million people in the United States over the age of 12 with an addiction in 2011.
Although most people don’t get the treatment they need, over 3 million people in 2011 received treatment for their addiction.
• Over 20 million Americans over the age of 12 have an addiction (excluding tobacco).
• 100 people die every day from drug overdoses. This rate has tripled in the past 20 years.
• Over 5 million emergency room visits in 2011 were drug related.
• 2.6 million people with addictions have a dependence on both alcohol and illicit drugs.
• 9.4 million people in 2011 reported driving under the influence of illicit drugs.
• 6.8 million people with an addiction have a mental illness.
• Rates of illicit drug use is highest among those aged 18 to 25.
• Over 90% of those with an addiction began drinking, smoking or using illicit drugs before the age of 18.
Alcohol Statistics
Alcoholism is one of the most common addictions affecting Americans. It also an addiction that goes untreated in many cases because of the legality of the substance. However, the recorded rates of alcoholism are decreasing (18.1 million people in 2002 to 16.7 million in 2011), but the addiction is still a cause for concern
• Binge drinking is more common in men; 9.1% of men 12 and older reported heavy drinking 5 or more days in a month, while 2.6% of women reported this.
• Over 11% of Americans have driven under the influence.
• Out of 16.6 million people with alcoholism, 2.6 million were also dependent on an illicit substance.
• It is estimated that over 95% of those who need treatment for alcoholism do not feel they need treatment.
• More people receive treatment for alcohol than any other substance.
• Over 30% of those who received treatment in 2011 reported using public or private health insurance to pay for treatment.
Tobacco and Nicotine Statistics
Tobacco products have the highest rates for dependence. There are several factors that contribute to this, such as availability. There are more resources than ever to help you quit.
• Tobacco-related costs for the United States is over $190 billion (healthcare costs, loss of productivity, etc.)
• The rate of illicit drug use was 9.5 times higher in 2011 for teens who smoked cigarettes than those who didn’t.
• Tobacco causes more deaths each year than all other substance abuse related deaths combined.
• Tobacco users in general are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol. Over 40% of cigarette smokers reported binge drinking in 2011.
• The rates of pack-a-day smokers among those aged 18 to 25 has decreased by over 13% since 2002.Ready to get help?
Marijuana Statistics
The rates of marijuana use are mostly responsible for the increase in the use of illicit drugs in the United States over the past years.
• Marijuana is the most common illicit drug used for the first time. Approximately 7,000 people try marijuana for the first time every day.
• Out of 2.6 million people who tried marijuana for the first time, over half were under the age of 18.
• The majority of youths aged 12 to 17 do not perceive a great risk from smoking marijuana.
• Marijuana had the highest rates of dependence out of all illicit substances in 2011.
Cocaine Statistics
In the period from 2006 to 2011, cocaine use (including crack) decreased considerably by nearly a million less users. Cocaine has one of the highest potentials of developing an addiction in those who abuse the drug.
• Approximately 1,800 people 12 and older tried cocaine for the first time in 2011.
• In 2011, over 800,000 Americans reported having an addiction to cocaine.
• The largest amount of illicit drug-related emergency room visits in 2011 were cocaine related (over 500,000 visits).
• Cocaine is also the most common drug found in addition to alcohol in alcohol-related emergency room visits.
• Cocaine use is highest among Americans aged 18 to 25.
Heroin Statistics
Heroin has long had a stigma of being one of the most dangerous drugs. Aside from there being a risk of addiction and overdose, there is also an increased risk of contracting blood-borne diseases such as HIV.
• The number of Americans with an addiction to heroin nearly doubled from 2007 to 2011.
• It is estimated that 80% of new hepatitis C infections occur among those who use drugs intravenously, such as heroin users.
• Nearly half of those who use heroin reportedly started abusing prescription pain killers before they ever used heroin.
• Over a quarter million of drug-related emergency room visits are related to heroin abuse.
Prescription Drug Statistics
Prescription medication abuse holds a lot of potential for people to develop addictions. These drugs can be easier to obtain than other drugs. Prescriptions, especially painkillers, have a high potential to lead to the use of more dangerous substances like heroin.
• The sale of painkillers has increased by over 300% since 1999.
• Tens of millions of Americans use prescription medications non-medically every year.
• Almost 3 out of 4 prescription overdoses are caused by painkillers. In 2009, 1 in 3 prescription painkiller overdoses were caused by methadone.
• Overdoses caused by painkillers are more common than heroin and cocaine overdoses combined.
• Over half of the people abusing prescribed drugs got them from a friend or relative. Over 17% were prescribed the medication.
• The number of people receiving treatment for addiction to painkillers and sedatives has doubled since 2002.
Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Statistics
Amphetamines and methamphetamines are an extremely dangerous class of drugs that are central nervous system stimulants. While amphetamines are typically acquired through a prescription, methamphetamines are classified as an illicit substance in the same class as cocaine.
• In 2010, around 13 million people have abused methamphetamines in their life and approximately 350,000 people were regular users. This number increased by over 80,000 the following year.
• There were approximately 160,000 amphetamine and methamphetamine related emergency room visits in 2011.
• Use of amphetamines is increasing among college students. One study across a hundred colleges showed nearly 7% of college students use amphetamines illegally. Over 25% of students reported use in the past year.
• A study by UCLA revealed that methamphetamines release nearly 4 times as much dopamine as cocaine, which means the substance is much more addictive.
Hallucinogen and Inhalant Statistics
Hallucinogens include a variety of substance including: LSD, MDMA (ecstasy), and mescaline. Inhalants range from household products to medical anesthetics. These substances aren’t as commonly abused as other substances, but still have a potential for dependence.
• There were over 20,000 ecstasy-related emergency room visits in 2011
• There were over 1.8 million Americans 12 or older who used a hallucinogen or inhalant for the first time. (1.1 million among hallucinogens)
• 22.7 million people (as of 2007) have reported using LSD in their lifetime.
• There are approximately 5,000 LSD-related emergency room visits per year.
• Nearly 300,000 Americans received treatment for hallucinogens in 2011.
• Between 2002 and 2006, over a half million of teens aged 12 to 17 had used inhalants.
• There were over 190,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. in 2008 due to inhalant poisoning.
The statistics found on this page were reported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Here Are The 10 Most Common Addictions
Tobacco (nicotine) – Over 40 Million
Nicotine addiction may not appear as harmful as many other addictions. This is likely because tobacco products are legal and easy to get, and the worst side effects of abusing them take time to develop. Tobacco use claims more lives than any that of any other addictive substance. Many smokers cannot quit despite knowing smoking’s impact on their health. Wanting to quit but being unable to is a telltale sign of addiction.
Alcohol – 18 Million
The social acceptance of drinking can make alcohol addiction hard to spot. Despite its legal status, alcohol’s potential for abuse opens users up to many health risks and possible addiction.
Alcohol abuse has numerous negative consequences. In addition to deaths from liver disease and alcohol overdose, drunk driving claims thousands of lives every year.
Marijuana – 4.2 Million
The legalization of marijuana in some states has made the drug’s use more socially acceptable. This trend can distract people from marijuana’s addictive potential. Rates of marijuana addiction might also be growing due to increasing potency (over 60 percent) over the past decade.
Painkillers – 1.8 Million
Drugs like codeine, Vicodin and Oxycontin are commonly prescribed to treat pain. Painkillers’ prescription status does not mean they aren’t addictive. Addiction to painkillers can develop from seemingly harmless levels of use. Most patients who become addicted to prescription painkillers don’t notice they have a problem until they try to stop use. Painkillers are also abused without a prescription, which can also lead to an addiction.
Cocaine – 821,000
Rates of cocaine addiction in the United States are dropping. The decline is slow, however, with an estimated 821,000 Americans still addicted as of 2011. Crack cocaine, which is cheaper and more intense than regular cocaine, is responsible for many crippling addictions and ruined lives.
Heroin – 426,000
Heroin’s severe withdrawal symptoms make beating a heroin addiction a difficult task. Treating heroin addiction typically requires a combination of therapy and medications to help manage symptoms of withdrawal and cravings.
Heroin abuse has been growing in the United States, particularly among young women. There is growing concern over heroin users contracting and spreading diseases like HIV and AIDS by sharing needles for injection.

Cited Page Option
[Los Angeles, CA: OMICS Publishing Group, Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence]
[Alcoholism Statistics]
[When juvenile teens decide to drink, it expenses the health care system approximately $3.7 billion per year to treat those injured in motor vehicle accidents and suicide attempts. When teens choose to drink alcohol, the total cost to society is about $52.8 billion.]

[Wilmington, DE: IMEDPUB, Journal of Drug Abuse]
[Drug Addiction]
[Drugs are chemicals that disrupts the brain the nerve cell function. Addiction is all about getting accustomed to a particular habit which itself is a complex disease and in order to quitting this habit depends upon an individual’s strong will power. Drug abuse is all about dependence one legal or illegal drug or medication. Few legal substances like alcohol and nicotine are also considered as drugs. This abuse misbalances the mindset of an individual by changing the structure and function of the brain. This habit or addiction has a great impact on brain. In order to presume a better life people must stop abusing drug. When an individual gets accustomed then he loses self-control and becomes unable to take any sound decisions]

[June Hunt, Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Doctorate of Law Degree and Doctorate in Literature]

Sample Solution