d= distance to HT Cas
a=radius of the Earth’s orbit
1. Given the above equation and information provided, about how far away is HT Cas?
2. Given that 1 parsec = 3.2616 light years, about what is the distance to HT Cas in light years?
3. Based on your answer, do you think this is a star that we might be able to send a space probe to? Why or why not?
4. Main Sequence stars can be classified according to which characteristics? What are the characteristics of our Sun?
5.Which main sequence stars can be found with a surface temperature of between 3000K-4000K? Which stars have a luminosity about 100 times less than that of the Sun?
6.Briefly describe the solar evolution time-line of a common star like our own from formation through collapse.
7.Describe different characteristics between terrestrial and Jovian planets.
8.What are the characteristics of a planet?Explain why Pluto was “demoted” to a dwarf planet.
9.Briefly describe how a black hole forms.
10.What is the most accurate method to calculate the distance to the stars? What are the limitations of this method, and at what distance? What are some other ways to estimate stellar distances more accurately than the method identified above? What unit of measurement is most commonly used to describe the distances between stars and/or galaxies? How does knowing the distance help classify a star?
Basically evaluate the obscuring of the limits between the declaration of a thought in a material frame (which is secured by copyright) and a thought itself (which isn't). In your reaction, you should look at the effect of the computerized condition on copyright and activities like open access and Creative Commons. Talk about in the case of ensuring unique works is getting to be out of date, considering the impact of a without copyright world on singular makers, makers and wholesalers. Be express about how you react to and expand the illustrations displayed in the point's digital broadcast and town meeting. 'Copyright can be characterized as the responsibility for articulation of thoughts, not simply the thoughts' (Bourne 2008). The issue of copyright is maybe confronting its most noteworthy test. The line between the declaration of thoughts in a material frame (which is ensured by copyright) and a thought itself (which isn't) is in effect progressively obscured because of the expanding predominance and entrance of computerized advancements in the national (Australian) and (worldwide) correspondence condition. With the expansion of copyright infringement as advanced innovations offer document sharing limits, the improvement of creator favoring activities approximating to Open Access and Creative Commons dissolving the corporate intensity of copyright companies, the presence of lawfully ensured copyright insurances a maker desires, partnerships seek after and government's secure, is under genuine danger. Generally the free market economy has imagined a progressive system from maker to purchaser in the advancement and spread of social data. Ordinarily, the method of generation had imagined a part for maker, producer, wholesaler and shopper. This was an incorporated framework. Copyright plagued and that which was ensured by copyright was troublesome if not difficult to wrongfully get without paying the sovereignties to the maker or copyright holder. Yochai Benkler accepts there has been a decentralization of the procedure because of the beginning of the advanced transformation, especially with Internet advances, while innovation all the while supports the centralisation of social data. 'I will propose that we call the mix of these two patterns - the radical decentralization of insight in our correspondences arrange and the centrality of data, learning, culture, and thoughts to cutting edge financial movement - the organized data economy' (Benkler 2003, p.1252). The quality of Benkler's contention is that it's a new thought that contends fairly from a political economy point of view, the creation procedure. The generation procedure has been decentralized because of advanced innovations and along these lines people who already held no part can make their own particular thoughts by either impersonating, spreading, duplicating, appropriating without outcome. This organized data economy (or decentralization of generation) has prompted an obscuring of the lines between the statement of thoughts in a material shape (which is secured by copyright) and a thought itself (which isn't) because of the expanding versatility and innovativeness people can use because of the beginning of advanced advances. Benkler accepts 'universally accessible shabby processors have profoundly lessened the essential capital information costs. What should be possible now with a work station would once have required an expert studio' (Benkler 2003, p.1254). As per Benkler, an essential supporter of social creation is prior data, a freely available great while others incorporate 'human innovativeness and the physical capital important to produce, settle, and impart transmissible units of data and culture - like an account studio or a broadcasting company' (Benkler 2003, p.1254). The Internet and computerized advancements have to a degree obliterated the strength of the capital generators, those proprietors and proprietors of copyright, for example, the broadcasting companies and distributers, and enabled purchasers to alter previous copyrighted material, or make their own, to the disadvantage of copyright holders. 'This leaves singular people nearer to the financial focal point of our data generation framework than they have been for over a century and a half' (Benkler 2003, p.1254). The falling flat of Benkler's contention is that it sees advanced advances as offering unlimited open doors for singular creation. While this might be valid, more often than not the item created is normally appropriated for nothing and the individuals who endeavor to make financial pick up are wiped out by the opposition that deliver free and higher quality programming and projects. The effect of the computerized condition has prompted the multiplication of copyright infringement and utilization of materials by shoppers in their own creations and thoughts without respect for the planned sovereignties. This has been seen no superior to in the rising commonness of document sharing programming on the Internet, its ubiquity, predominance, and focusing by organizations for claims. 'The most drastically new and new component in this class is center based companion creation of data, learning, and culture, whose most unmistakable occasion has been free programming' (Benkler 2003, p.1254). A case of these 'companion arrange' frameworks Benkler talks about incorporates 'record sharing' frameworks, for example, Limewire, BitTorent, eMule and Gnutella. 'In light of shared innovation (Fattah 2002; Oram 2001), supposed 'filesharing' frameworks offer the likelihood to trade any kind of computerized information for nothing and without limitation' (Quiring 2008, p.435). Impressive misfortunes in incomes have brought about the film, gaming and especially interchanges businesses because of the illicit replicating and sharing of their items. 'As per the correspondences business, it passes up a great opportunity for significant incomes every year because of the unlawful trade of interchanges information' (Quiring, von Walter and Atterer 2008, p.435). So also there has been spread in the measure of value free projects on the Internet that supplant those provided by companies and have no copyright securities of their own. 'The organized data economy... opens for profoundly decentralized community oriented creation... "peer production"... a procedure by which numerous people, whose activities are facilitated neither by administrators nor by value signals, add to a joint exertion that successfully delivers a unit of data or culture' (Benkler 2003, p.1254). 'Free programming has turned into the quintessential occasion of companion creation in the previous couple of years. More than 85 percent of messages are directed utilizing the sendmail programming that was delivered and refreshed along these lines '(Benkler 2003, p.1254). More than 60% of Australians utilize msn, hurray, Google or other free E-mail suppliers as their essential E-Mail account and the improvement of free infection checking programming, for example, AVG, free correspondences creating and aesthetic projects have bit by bit disintegrated interchanges company's copyright power and hold on the shopper advertise. Anyway here, inside these filesharing and delivering networks the lines between the statement of thoughts in a material frame and a thought itself are all the more profoundly obscured as the suppliers of free projects and the individuals who unlawfully duplicate and disseminate programming, programs and social documents, (for example, correspondences), known as 'warez' have built up their own codes of generation and utilization. A scholarly of Southern California University, D. Thomas suggests this in his article 'Advancement, Piracy and the Ethos of New Media' distinguishes three key basics in the 'warez ethos' (Thomas 2002, p.87). Initially, 'keeping data free and open notwithstanding corporate control', a demonstration which they see as exemplifying 'the soul of the Internet'; correspondences or diversion sweethearts 'appropriate to redistribute' merchandise they have acquired 'giving they don't benefit fiscally.' Secondly the feeling of a 'privilege to advanced substance', as subsequent to purchasing a PC and web get to they see the substance as effectively paid for' (Thomas 2002, p.87). It can in this manner be seen that the advanced condition disintegrates copyright assurance and the advantages copyright conveys to its proprietors and merchants. Because of the disintegration of copyright assurances, banter about has emerged in the matter of whether the disintegration of copyright is alluring. As per Spinello, while they are evermore secured by government enactment, property rights 'are frequently rejected or derided in scholastic circles. Post-present day commentators, for instance, think that its hard, to acknowledge that imaginative works have a solitary creator, so the task of a property right loses clarity' (Spinello 2003, p.2). It has consequently been contended by numerous scholastics, including Lessig that 'advancement and imagination rely on free, uncontrolled assets' and all the more definitely, 'as indicated by Lessig the Internet frames a "development center," that is, where development and innovative articulation can prosper' (Spinello 2003, p.3). With an end goal to shield themselves from the expanding breaks of copyright realized by these sort of standards and advanced innovations that encourage these ruptures of copyright, copyright proprietors have campaigned governments to stretch out copyright security to lifetime in addition to seventy years and are endeavoring to supersede exemptions conceded to establishments, for example, colleges and parliaments alongside expelling the copyright possession from makers to themselves. This has encouraged the ascent of developments against this pattern known as 'Open Access' and 'Imaginative Commons' with a specific end goal to ensure makers and purchasers. 'Open Access' and 'Imaginative Commons' are two associations that embrace contradicting, yet on a very basic level comparable objectives to manage the obscuring of the limits between the outflow of thoughts in a material frame and thoughts themselves. From one viewpoint 'Imaginative Commons' contends for the assurance of makers>GET ANSWER