- What are the effects of a space that creates a fear of crime? Does the environment have to actually be unsafe in order for people to feel unsafe?
How can one objectively evaluate a space when fear itself may have subjective sources?
How do social pressures—lack of employment, lack of entertainment, lack of healthcare—contribute to the prevalence of crime?
Explore the Design Against Crime Research Centre website: www.designagainstcrime.com
Explore gathered research on the Design Council’s Design Against Crime website: www.designagainstcrime.org
Explore the research collected on the Designing Out Crime website: www.designingoutcrime.com
2.The author of this chapter suggests that the hallmarks of CPTED remain much the same after many years. Considering the change in urban demographics—return to the city for younger middle-class residents, urban renewal, etc.—can you think of any new scenarios CPTED might need to address in the future?
3)Responding to the questions below.
If the population as a whole changes how it gets from place to place—more and more subway users, the decline of the gas-powered car, etc.—how might that affect CPTED planning?
Why should CPTED planners care about the requirements for LEED certification?
Millennials, also known as Generation Y, typically refer to the population born from 1980 to 1994 (some say 2000), almost all of whom have come into adulthood by today. Not only do millennials consist of more than 25% (75 million) of the U.S. population (Berger, 2016, p.103), they also possess the tremendous annual purchasing power of $200 billion (Solomon, 2015, par.3). As millennials dominate the whole consumer population of the U.S., they have become the targets and chief subjects of analysis by marketers. Although some might argue that the characteristics of millennials are the general features exhibited by young people, most scholars have agreed on the existence of cohort effects of millennials. Schawbel (2015) argued that they seem not to be influenced at all by advertising (par. 2), but in the meantime purchasing an enormous amount of similar “in trend” merchandizes with their peers, including clothes, technology products, food and et cetera. According to Walker (2008), a major question to ask by marketers is, “how do we square this marketing-resistant generation with another point that the experts always make: that many members of Generation Y demand the toniest designer clothes, the best cell phones, the most complex lattes?” (p.103). Millennials are too versatile to be analyzed easily, and part of the reason is that their multicultural identities have made them more complex than the generations before them. A Nielsen report published in 2017 shows that 42% of the millennial cohort population has multicultural heritage, or are ambicultural (p.3). With their multicultural heritage, along with being exposed to a diversity of cultures on a regular basis, millennials not only developed a broad, unique purchasing habit, but are also influencing the buying decisions of their peers and family profoundly. When making purchasing decisions, millennials pay a tremendous amount of time and attention choosing the brands that they align their own identities with. A study by the Keller Fay Group released in 2007 claimed that millennials have roughly 145 conversations about brands a week (versus the public average level of 71). Among these conversations, 77 brands are mentioned on average. In addition, brand mentions by millennials are three times as likely to be via digital media and 57% of them cites marketing or media material(p.4) Consumer behaviors have conventionally been disseminated by television, radio and newspapers, but in the twenty-first century, social media has begun to replace traditional media’s enduring and influential role on millennials consumers. Like Uitz (2012) argued, this phenomenon puts forward both an opportunity and a challenge from a marketer’s perspective (p.5). Reacting to the rapid growth and prevalence of social media among millennials, marketers are tirelessly planting advertisements, brand profiles and sponsored contents onto platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and Twitter to promote sales. According to Yaakop et al., implementing content that is captivating and relevant drives millennial consumers to communicate with each other and advertise the information to their friends (p.155). This process, also known as word-of-mouth (WOM), is not only the future of social media marketing communications, but also the key phenomenon that marketers are aiming to probe into.>GET ANSWER