- If the enduring vision of America is embodied in the Declaration of Independence’s statements about equality and universal rights to justice, liberty, and self-fulfillment, how much progress toward those ideals had African-Americans and women made by 1865? Back up your evaluation with as many specific facts as possible about the status of African-Americans and women at the end of the Civil War. “Change over time” has always been a part of the American experience. Discuss the role of women, African Americans and Native Americans, and other minority groups and how their lives have changed in our class up until 1865. 2. In what respects was the Constitution of the United States as written and ratified in 1787 undemocratic? How was the American political system democratized between 1789 and 1865? What undemocratic features remained to be addressed? Give as many specific examples in your answer as possible.
evaluation methods. She found “a lack of correlation between students’ self-assessments and teacher ratings” (p.329). Préfontaine also states that one of the limitations of her study is the lack of qualitative data. Additionally, Ross (1998), in a meta-analysis of studies investigating self-assessment in L2 learning, asserts that one of the main limitations to self-assessment studies is the lack of qualitative-oriented studies. This study will contribute to investigating validity and reliability of self-evaluations, in an effort to alleviate these inconclusive results due to lack of theory and methodological dead ends. Self-evaluations, in this study, targeted two specific features of French pronunciation: segmental /y/ vs /u/ and segmental/suprasegmental “silent e” (or schwa). These two features have been chosen as variables because they are critical to learners’ intelligibility and comprehensibility. Munro & Derwing’s (1995) Intelligibility/ Comprehensibility principle asserts that intelligibility is the extent to which a given utterance is understood by the learner, while comprehensibility is the learners’ perception of how well they understand an utterance. Methods Participants and sampling The study took place at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. L2 students in a French phonetics course were recruited to participate in the project via an in-class introduction and follow-up emails. The tasks were integrated into the structure of the French phonetics course, and all students in the course were expected to complete these tasks. The instructor of the course was not a member of the research team. The Fall 2016 French phonetics course had two sections, one section was the control group (G1) while the other the treatment group (G2). The groups were assigned randomly to one or the other section. Recruitment took place at the beginning of a class period after permission had been granted by the instructor. The researcher then explained the goals of the study and distributed individual sign-up sheet to preserve the anonymity of the participants. Any student who wished to participate was welcome. The researcher hoped to recruit at least 15 participants in each section of the French phonetics course to meet the requirement for representativeness, but due to lack of enrollment, there were only 7 participants per group. The qualitative data from the participants provided rich enough data to obtain a credible picture and ensure saturation. Thus the requirements for the representativeness/saturation trade-off was met. Both groups received the same instruction in French phonetics and pr>GET ANSWER