1-Very briefly, (max 3-4 sentences) describe your personal experience with a system whose capability disappointed you. In your opinion, was this disappointment the result of a design mistake made by the system’s designer, poorly defined requirements, or the result of a conscious trade-off decision that had been made during the system’s design? For example, a compact laptop keyboard that is too small to be usable might be the result of a design trade-off decision (compact size vs. usability). However, a keyboard with keys that easily break loose is a design error. (include a picture/image to illustrate your discussion)
2-Select an Engineering Disaster of your own choosing and do some background research on the incident.
- Briefly summarize what went wrong.
- Assess whether an adequate Systems Engineering approach had been used, and if it had, would it have had an impact on the outcome? why or why not?
Consider the following questions in your assessment:
- Did they get the requirements wrong, or were they missing?
- Did they not open-up the design space and not identify the best design solution?
- Where in the lifecycle did the error occur? Requirements Definition, Conceptual Design, Manufacturing, Test, or Operations/Support (maintenance)
- Did safety features fail or were they absent?
- Use of improper test methods and methodologies?
Body temperature is one of the vital signs and it is a complex clinical variable, which can be captured accurately and quantitatively analysed 1-2. According to German physician Wunderlich, the normal body temperature is defined as 37 0C and fever as 38 0C 3. A healthy, resting adult human normal core body temperature is 37 0C. However body temperature is not constant and varies among individuals throughout the day, because of individual’s metabolism rate, which is directly proportional to the normal core body temperature, time of a day or part of the body in which the temperature measured at, in the early morning the body temperature is lower and in late evening it is high due to after muscular activity and food intake. Body temperature also varies at different sites. In clinical practice the rectal, oral, axillary, forehead and ear are used to measure body temperature. An oral site, which is more convenient to measure temperature is at 37 0C. Axillary site is not accurate to measure the temperature, where temperature fall at least value36.4 0C is noted from this site. Generally rectal temperature is considered to be the gold standard for core body temperature and average temperature is fall at 37.60C.Being an internal core body temperature, it is least time consuming procedure. The temperature is higher than at other sites, due to the low blood flow and high isolation of the area, giving a low heat loss16. Rectal temperature measurement is unhygienic and can pose a risk of injury to the intestinal mucosa, especially in infants and in rectal surgery. It increases physical and psychological stress and can cause embarrassment, anxiety and physical discomfort17. The tympanic is a good site for non-invasive measurement of core body temperature. However care should be exercised with the different modes of operation offered.18 When summarizing studies with able or adequately able affirmation, the ambit for articulate temperature was 33.2-38.2 0C, rectal: 34.4-37.8 0C, tympanic: 35.4-37.80C. The ambit in articulatetemperature for men and women, respectively, was 35.7-37.7and 33.2-38.1 0C, in abdominal 36.7-37.5 in tympanic 35.5-37.5 and35.7-37.5 0C1. Mackowiak et al. in 1992 recorded the body temperatures of 65 men with the average value of36.8 0C (98.2 0F).4 The thermometer is one of the most attempted and trusted clinical instruments, yet surprising surround the information which it yields. The use of thermometer in clinical medicine was started in the middle of 19th century. However its understanding and significance of temperature measurement in health and diseased condition was occurred from past twenty decades 19. Thermometer is invented in seventeenth-century, it did not reach medicine until the 1870’s, it was already in veterinary use because it provided an early diagnosis of the dreaded cattle plague-as discovered 100 years earlier by a French veterinary student. On the other hand the existence of fever had been recognized since 600 B.C. For most of this time, fever was believed to be beneficial, even to absurd degrees. `If there were a physician skilful1 enough to produce a fever it would be useless to seek any other remedy against disease’-according to Rufus of Ephesus in A.D. 100. By the 17OO’s, however, the ability of willow bark to reduce fever became known and, as ever, once an effective drug was available, excellent use was found for it. The abilit>GET ANSWER