The TPB has been used in explaining individual actions and has been useful in the study of entrepreneurial intention in entrepreneurial research (Krueger et al., 2000). The TPB holds that conscious individual decisions to behave in a given manner are what determines action (Ajzen, 1991). It also establishes that those intentions are attitudes resulting from personal characteristics and perceptions constructed by the individual from past experiences (Ajzen, 1991). According to Krueger and others (2000), there are three factors that determine behavioral intention:
Behavioral attitude: Behavioral attitude is understood as individuals having a suitable or unsuitable assessment of their behavior, in this case, to carry out an entrepreneurial action (Krueger et al., 2000).
Subjective norm: Subjective norm refers to the perceived social pressure to perform or not perform a particular behavior. Subjective norms involve behaving in accordance to social expectations. For example, this may include the expectations of the individual’s family about the individual becoming an entrepreneur.
Perception of behavioral control: Perception of behavioral control refers to the ease or difficulty of performing a certain behavior and includes the perception that individuals have in their ability to carry out a specific behavior. This determinant is closely related to the concept of self-efficacy (Linan, 2006) developed by Bandura (1986). Both refer to perceptual factors that are specific to achieving a certain behavior or behavioral goal.
The TPB presents a high degree of mutual compatibility. For example, the determinant of behavioral attitude aligns with the concept of perceived desirability. Subjective norms coincide with the idea of feasibility and desirability, while feasibility coincides with the perceived behavioral control (Krueger et al., 2000). Consequently, both models emphasize the motivational background for entrepreneurial intention. The variables used by the TPB reflect in large part what other models try to explain.
2.2.4 Theory of Planned Behavior in Kuwaiti Culture
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) can be used to explain individual intentions to engage in entrepreneurial behavior (Ajez, 1991, Stavrou, 1999). This theory explains the probability that a person engaging in a behavior is based on their intention to engage in that behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Ajzen, 1987).
According to the TPB, individuals use information that is available to them while making decisions. People’s purpose for acting is a judge of behavioral intention. Behavioral intention is based on three factors: attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (Ajzen, 1991).
Attitude is the personal inclination towards a behavior based on individual’s thoughts (Kuhl & Bechmann, 1985), which focuses on the results from people’s behavior and the impact on individuals that shows whether individuals like or not liking specific behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Entrepreneurship behavior is the process of discovering opportunities to make new product or products by making fresh organization (Venkataraman, 1997). Some individuals see entrepreneurs as people who couldn’t find any job, while some other see them ambitious people that assess themselves to become self-actualization. Therefore, the positive attitude would be more willing to act as an entrepreneur and see it as way of accomplishing self-esteems.
Subjective norms is the second determinant of intention, which is concerned with the external influences on individual’s intention towards a behavior. It suggest that people perceive social pressure as a push to either engage or avoid certain behaviors, (Kuhl & Bechmann, 1985). As a result, individuals known to be important have significant impact on other’s entrepreneurial behaviors. It is important to know that Kuwait is a collectivist society. Therefore, if people who have high social status in Kuwait society, help entrepreneurial development, entrepreneurial incentive may be boosted.
Perceived behavioral control:
According to Vukovic, Kedmenec, Postolov, Jovanovski, and Korent (2017), subjective norms tend to be weaker predictors of entrepreneurial behavior in western societies. On the other hand, subjective norms are more relevant and accepted in Eastern society (Autio et al., 2001; Krueger et al., 2000). Usually, subjective norms indirectly impact entrepreneurial behavior, and attitude usually plays a mediating role.
Perceived behavioral control is defined as the perceived ability of an individual to perform a behavior (Krueger, Reilly, & Carsrud, 2000). It is the difference between what individual can do versus what he or she actually expects to be able to do (Kuhl & Bechmann, 1985). Even though business skills are essential to the achievement of entrepreneurial process, the number of resources and the skills are not as important as the individual’s subjective assessment of the resources and the skills are (Krueger, Reilly, & Carsrud, 2000). People who analysis the same resources may believe they are abundant, while others think they are limited. If individuals’ perceptions toward their capabilities were positive, they would see their resources and skills as an opportunity rather than a challenge (Wilson, Kickul, & Marlino, 2007). Moreover, individuals with positive perceptions are display greater entrepreneurial behaviors than those who have negative perceptions (Wilson, Kickul, & Marlino, 2007).
The interaction between the components of TPB and entrepreneurial behavior have motivated many studies (Kolvereid, 1996; Tkachev and Kolvereid, 1999; Solesvik et al., 2012; Souitaris et al., 2007). However, few studies have shown a significant relationship between the three factors of TPB and entrepreneurial behaviors (Kolvereid, 1996; Souitaris et al., 2007; Tkachev & Kolvereid, 1999). In addition, Solesvik et al. (2012) studied students of economic and business in different institutions, and the result showed that students who were involved in entrepreneurship courses with positive attitudes toward being independent were more willing to improve their behaviors in order to enhance entrepreneurial actions than those with negative attitudes. Moreover, indirect relationships between subjective norms and entrepreneurial behaviors have been shown (Tkachev & Kolvereid, 1999). However, Wu et al. (2008) did not find a relationship between subjective norms and entrepreneurial behaviors in a sample of Chinese students. Most of the researchers have shown indirect relationships between subjective norms and entrepreneurial behaviors (Linan & Chen, 2006; Solesvik et al., 2012).
As a result, the TPB may serve as a suitable foundation for examination of Kuwaiti individuals’ entrepreneurial behaviors. Even though Western studies have used the TPB in examining entrepreneurial behavior (Gird & Bagraim, 2008; Kolvereid, 1996; Kolvereid & Isaksen, 2006), the results of using TPB in forecasting individuals’ entrepreneurship behavior are varies. However, the TPB may be applicable to Kuwait as collectivist society in the study of entrepreneurial behaviors (Hofstede, 2001).