1. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the field of Environmental Health
    focuses upon which of the following type of hazard?
    a. Chemical hazards
    b. Biological hazards
    c. Physical hazards (e.g., ionizing and nonionizing radiation)
    d. All of the above are the focus of Environmental Health
  2. Which of the following statements is not true:
    a. Population growth is associated with environmental pollution.
    b. Population growth rates are lower in developing nations than in developed nations.
    c. Humans are susceptible to poisoning by our own waste products.
    d. Poverty is associated with environmental pollution.
  3. In many parts of the world, human population is growing exponentially and may exceed the
    carrying capacity of the Earth. Briefly define or describe what carrying capacity means.

  1. Environmental factors are thought to contribute significantly to various forms of cancer,
    including cervical cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer.
    a. True
    b. False
  2. Children are more vulnerable to environmental hazards than adults. List any two reasons why
    children are more vulnerable.
    a. __________________________________________________
    b. __________________________________________________
    Last Name:_________________ Page 2 of 6
  3. Which of the following statements about climate change is not true?
    a. Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of health such as
    clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and shelter.
    b. Between 2010 and 2050 climate change is expected to cause approximately 250,000
    additional deaths per year from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and heat stress.
    c. Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases can result in improved health.
    d. Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases can result in improved health.
  4. The term epidemiologic risk transition in developed countries is characterized by a:
    a. Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases
    b. Growing burden of infectious and communicable diseases
    c. Rapid increase in population
    d. Population comprised of predominantly young individuals
  5. Which of the following statements is true about ecosystems?
    a. Ecosystems are being degraded rapidly.
    b. Human beings are considered to be a part of ecosystems.
    c. An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities.
    d. All of the above are true about ecosystems.
  6. Define environmental epidemiology in one or two sentences.

  1. Epidemiology is important to the study of environmental health problems because it aids in the
    development of hypotheses and the study of causal relationships.
    a. True
    b. False
  2. The ________ class of epidemiologic studies examines causal (etiologic)
    hypotheses regarding the association between exposures and health conditions. They propose
    and evaluate causal models that employ both outcome variables and exposure variables.
    a. Descriptive
    b. Analytic
    Last Name:_________________ Page 3 of 6
  3. ____ refers to the number of existing cases of a disease in a population at some
    designated time, while ________ rate refers to the occurrence of new cases of
    disease within a defined period of time.
    a. Incidence—-Prevalence
    b. Prevalence—-Incidence
    c. Case-control—-Cohort
    d. Cohort—-Case-Control
  4. Exposure to a biological agent resulted in the following: A total of 300 cases with disease, of
    which 60 were fatal. The case fatality rate is about:
    a. 5%
    b. 10%
    c. 15%
    d. 20%
  5. Use the information in the standard 2 x 2 table below for a cohort study to calculate the relative
    risk (RR).
    2 x 2 Table for a Cohort Study
    Disease Status
    Yes No Total
    Exposed A=5 B=100 A+B=105
    Not Exposed C=2 D=405 C+D=407
    In this example the relative risk (RR) is about:
    a. 4
    b. 8
    c. 10
    d. 15
  6. When the relative risk is greater than _ it indicates the risk of the disease is greater in the exposed group than among the non-exposed group. a. 1 b. 3 c. 5 d. 10 Last Name:___________________ Page 4 of 6
  7. ___ bias is the distortion of a measure of the effect of an exposure on an
    outcome due to the association with other factors that influence the occurrence of the outcome.
    a. Recall
    b. Selection
    c. Confounding
    d. Inexplicable
  8. List any two of the four steps of risk assessment.
    a. ___________
    b. ___________
  9. The concentration and toxicity of a chemical in the body are affected by:
    a. Dose of the chemical
    b. Duration of exposure
    c. Frequency of exposure
    d. All of the above
  10. Which of the following terms indicates that the combined effect of exposures to two or more
    chemicals (such as hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) is much greater than the sum of their
    individual effects?
    a. Additive
    b. Potentiation
    c. Antagonistic
    d. Synergistic
  11. Dose-response assessment refers to the question of:
    a. What are the health effects that this agent can cause?
    b. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population?
    c. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of health effects in humans (or
    d. None of the above.
    Last Name:_________________ Page 5 of 6
  12. Which of the following graphs indicates there is a threshold for the lowest dose of a chemical
    Resp Death Resp Death
    0 Dose 0 Dose 
    a. _ b. __
  13. The precautionary principle in environmental policy development states that:
    a. A polluter should bear the expense of carrying out pollution prevention and control
    b. A strong, just, and wealthy society can be consistent with a clean environment.
    c. All people in society should receive equal treatment with respect to environmental laws
    and policies.
    d. Preventive measures should be taken when an activity raises threats of harm to the
  14. The principle of environmental sustainability in environmental policy development states that:
    a. Resources should not be depleted faster than they can be regenerated, and that there
    should be no permanent change to the natural environment.
    b. A polluter should bear the expense of carrying out pollution prevention and control
    c. Preventive measures should be taken when an activity raises threats of harm to the
    d. All people in society should receive equal treatment with respect to environmental laws
    and policies.
  15. The agency responsible for environmental health at the global (international) level is the:
    a. EPA
    b. NIOSH
    c. WHO
    d. ATSDR
    Last Name:_________________ Page 6 of 6
  16. The concept of environmental justice specifies that:
    a. Immigrants can receive higher exposures to pesticides if their economic welfare is
    b. Industries can bypass environmental regulations in order to preserve their economic
    c. Decision-makers do not need to seek out the involvement of community members.
    d. All people must receive fair treatment in the enforcement of environmental laws.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.