- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the field of Environmental Health
focuses upon which of the following type of hazard?
a. Chemical hazards
b. Biological hazards
c. Physical hazards (e.g., ionizing and nonionizing radiation)
d. All of the above are the focus of Environmental Health
- Which of the following statements is not true:
a. Population growth is associated with environmental pollution.
b. Population growth rates are lower in developing nations than in developed nations.
c. Humans are susceptible to poisoning by our own waste products.
d. Poverty is associated with environmental pollution.
- In many parts of the world, human population is growing exponentially and may exceed the
carrying capacity of the Earth. Briefly define or describe what carrying capacity means.
- Environmental factors are thought to contribute significantly to various forms of cancer,
including cervical cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer.
- Children are more vulnerable to environmental hazards than adults. List any two reasons why
children are more vulnerable.
Last Name:_________________ Page 2 of 6
- Which of the following statements about climate change is not true?
a. Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of health such as
clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and shelter.
b. Between 2010 and 2050 climate change is expected to cause approximately 250,000
additional deaths per year from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and heat stress.
c. Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases can result in improved health.
d. Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases can result in improved health.
- The term epidemiologic risk transition in developed countries is characterized by a:
a. Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases
b. Growing burden of infectious and communicable diseases
c. Rapid increase in population
d. Population comprised of predominantly young individuals
- Which of the following statements is true about ecosystems?
a. Ecosystems are being degraded rapidly.
b. Human beings are considered to be a part of ecosystems.
c. An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities.
d. All of the above are true about ecosystems.
- Define environmental epidemiology in one or two sentences.
- Epidemiology is important to the study of environmental health problems because it aids in the
development of hypotheses and the study of causal relationships.
- The ________ class of epidemiologic studies examines causal (etiologic)
hypotheses regarding the association between exposures and health conditions. They propose
and evaluate causal models that employ both outcome variables and exposure variables.
Last Name:_________________ Page 3 of 6
- ____ refers to the number of existing cases of a disease in a population at some
designated time, while ________ rate refers to the occurrence of new cases of
disease within a defined period of time.
- Exposure to a biological agent resulted in the following: A total of 300 cases with disease, of
which 60 were fatal. The case fatality rate is about:
- Use the information in the standard 2 x 2 table below for a cohort study to calculate the relative
2 x 2 Table for a Cohort Study
Yes No Total
Exposed A=5 B=100 A+B=105
Not Exposed C=2 D=405 C+D=407
In this example the relative risk (RR) is about:
- When the relative risk is greater than _ it indicates the risk of the disease is greater in the exposed group than among the non-exposed group. a. 1 b. 3 c. 5 d. 10 Last Name:___________________ Page 4 of 6
- ___ bias is the distortion of a measure of the effect of an exposure on an
outcome due to the association with other factors that influence the occurrence of the outcome.
- List any two of the four steps of risk assessment.
- The concentration and toxicity of a chemical in the body are affected by:
a. Dose of the chemical
b. Duration of exposure
c. Frequency of exposure
d. All of the above
- Which of the following terms indicates that the combined effect of exposures to two or more
chemicals (such as hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) is much greater than the sum of their
- Dose-response assessment refers to the question of:
a. What are the health effects that this agent can cause?
b. What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population?
c. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of health effects in humans (or
d. None of the above.
Last Name:_________________ Page 5 of 6
- Which of the following graphs indicates there is a threshold for the lowest dose of a chemical
Resp Death Resp Death
0 Dose 0 Dose
a. _ b. __
- The precautionary principle in environmental policy development states that:
a. A polluter should bear the expense of carrying out pollution prevention and control
b. A strong, just, and wealthy society can be consistent with a clean environment.
c. All people in society should receive equal treatment with respect to environmental laws
d. Preventive measures should be taken when an activity raises threats of harm to the
- The principle of environmental sustainability in environmental policy development states that:
a. Resources should not be depleted faster than they can be regenerated, and that there
should be no permanent change to the natural environment.
b. A polluter should bear the expense of carrying out pollution prevention and control
c. Preventive measures should be taken when an activity raises threats of harm to the
d. All people in society should receive equal treatment with respect to environmental laws
- The agency responsible for environmental health at the global (international) level is the:
Last Name:_________________ Page 6 of 6
- The concept of environmental justice specifies that:
a. Immigrants can receive higher exposures to pesticides if their economic welfare is
b. Industries can bypass environmental regulations in order to preserve their economic
c. Decision-makers do not need to seek out the involvement of community members.
d. All people must receive fair treatment in the enforcement of environmental laws.
Powerful correspondence is imperative to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the aim of the sender It is restricted. Misinterpretations. Despite the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely available, numerous basic arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances. Concerning specific contextual investigation, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel choice and clamor are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different hypotheses to more readily comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence. This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the justification and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit utilization of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence powerful, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and pertinent, and these are clear, finished, brief, respectful, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business Communication in Business The business correspondence organization needs to speak with different people and associations. Great correspondence can deal with the organization productively. Specialized technique: External correspondence: Communication with clients and different administrations, correspondence with the rest of the world. The best approach to speak with the outside is email, TV, ad, magazine, flyer. Inside correspondence: This is correspondence that happens in business, for example, correspondence between different branches of business and correspondence between workers. Business correspondence is basic to the accomplishment of business, without business correspondence you can not complete business. Business correspondence is an approach to control representatives and draw in clients. The correspondence cycle depends on messages sent and got. The data or data might be non-verbal or phonetic. There are numerous models that can portray the correspondence cycle without any problem. Accordingly, the model we are examining about the correspondence cycle is Shannon's model. The business correspondence organization needs to speak with different people and associations. Great correspondence can deal with the organization effectively. Specialized strategy: External correspondence: Communication with clients and different administrations, correspondence with the rest of the world. The best approach to speak with the outside is email, TV, commercial, magazine, flyer. - Work in the working environment utilizing Peter Drucker - "The board Practices" You can see that Coca - Cola has accomplished its objective. Benefit - The primary motivation behind any premium gathering is to build income per market. The correspondence that a business association makes to accomplish a particular objective is called business correspondence. Actually, business correspondence is an extraordinary method of imparting to address the issues of the association. Solid ideas in contemporary administration, for example, cooperation, inspiration and support will grow fundamentally on correspondence. Successful correspondence is vital for the development and improvement of the association. HH Hicks brought up accurately - "From the introduction of the association, correspondence is the establishment of authoritative presence, hierarchical exercises no longer exist toward the finish of correspondence." Improving relational abilities expands the odds of accomplishment can do. Compelling correspondence achieves progress and prosperitycommunication. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When imparting, we should set up a neighborly relationship with every individual who sends data to us. To be neighborly and affable is indistinguishable, and kindness requires a mindful and cordial activity against others. Sayings are notable that affable "pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything". Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving politeness: Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to consent to a given objective. Authoritative achievement relies enormously upon viable correspondence. So as to viably impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee viable correspondence: lucidity: clearness of data is a significant standard of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message obviously, the messages ought to be sorted out in a straightforward language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can undoubtedly comprehend the significance of the message, the sender needs to convey plainly and certainly so the beneficiary can obviously and unquestionably comprehend the data.>GET ANSWER