Environmental science

Mark the correct answer by making it BOLD.

  1. Populations of most species live in “clumps.” This is because:

a. Animals make temporary groups during mating /nesting

b. Safety in numbers (herds provide group protection)

c. Resource availability is patchy

d. All of the above

  1. Which one is an abiotic growth factor?

a. Favorable light

b. Favorable temperature

c. both (a) and (b)

d. none of the above

  1. Which one of the following can act as environmental resistance?

a. Limited space

b. Outbreak of diseases

c. Increased predation

d. All of the above

  1. Which one is not a density-independent limit factor?

a. Natural disaster

b. Disease outbreak

c. Habitat destruction

d. Pollution

  1. A species that have fewer, larger offspring, provides a lot of parental care and most offspring survive to reproductive age is called:

a. r-strategist

b. K-strategist

c. None of the above

  1. Migration routes for species can help enhance:

a. overall population size

b. genetic diversity

c. survival of meta populations

d. All of the above

  1. Based on survivorship curve, small birds would belong to:

a. early-loss population

b. late-loss population

c. constant-loss population

d. None of the above

  1. Carrying capacity of a given space for a particular species is determined by:

a. Environmental resistance

b. Biotic potential

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

  1. A city managed to sustain a stable population until last year when it saw a large drop in the number of young adults. Assuming that the birth and death rates were about the same last year, the drop in the city’s population must be due to:

a. Immigration

b. Emigration

c. Demographic transition

d. None of the above

  1. Ireland experienced a population crash in the mid-nineteenth century because of:

a. War with England

b. Outbreak of plague

c. Crop failure

d. None of the above

  1. Maintaining optimum sustainable yield typically involves:

a. Harvesting as many animals as possible (often above 50% of the population)

b. Harvesting conservatively (30% or fewer) and allowing predators to play a role

c. Harvesting at a level that will maximize revenue

d. None of the above

  1. Sexual reproduction has certain characteristics, for example:

a. It provides greater genetic diversity in offspring

b. It increases the chance of genetic errors or defects

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above

  1. Which species are likely to be more successful during the early stages of succession?

a. K-elected species

b. r-selected species

c. opportunists

d. Both (b) and (c)

  1. Based on life table analysis, human population can be termed as a:

a. Late-loss population

b. Equal-loss population

c. Early-loss population

d. None of the above

  1. Compared to natural systems, human-dominated systems are:

a.Less efficient in recycling nutrients

b.Biologically simpler

c.Driven by carbon-based energy source

d.All of the above

  1. The scientist who introduced many ideas related to ecosystem resilience is:

a. James Kay

b. Aldo Leopold

c. C. S. Holling

d. George Perkins

  1. Stability of an ecosystem refers to:

a. The ability to resist being disturbed or altered

b. Ability of its populations to maintain their sizes with limits imposed by available resources

c. Ability to absorb shocks without being fundamentally changed

d. All of the above

  1. When a community is dominated by a few long lived plant species and is in balance with its environment, it is called ______________
  2. An ecosystem in late successional stage would have many, mostly specialized ecological niches. [1]

a. True

d. False

  1. The process that involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities on nearly lifeless ground is called

Sample Solution