Environmentalism of the poor

Answer 4 of the following 6 question (a maximum 400 words for each question). 1. Why is the ‘environmentalism of the poor’ best understood as a clash over the control and use of productive resources? 2. What is meant by the notion that “wilderness is a social construction”? Provide an example to illustrate your point. 3. Political Ecology has been described as offering a “hatchet” to take apart flawed, dangerous, and politically problematic accounts of environmental issues, and a “seed° to grow into new socioecologies. Provide an example of how it achieves this. 4. Environmental justice requires that individuals have equitable access to environmental ‘goods’ and are not unfairly burdened with environmental ‘bads’. Discuss both of these dimensions of environmental justice using at least two examples of injustices and critically reflect on how these injustices are impacting humans and non-humans. In your discussion you might consider the ideas of shadow places, multi-species justice, vulnerability. 5. In his lecture, Associate Professor Matthew Kearnes presented the quote from his book Remaking Participation: “The comforting assurance that the development of scientific understanding would result in socially progressive discoveries, and that in times of crisis bold assertions of scientific process and methodological rigour would carry the day, have seemingly been supplanted by a more questioning and ambivalent outlook: Explain why has the public become ambivalent toward scientific authority by using Jasanoffs arguments (i.e., the reading from Week 7). 6. Discuss the hidden city, using one of, or a mixture of, the following notions: synurbic species, underground urbanism and shadow spaces. It is important to connect this with considerations of livability and the potential of cities as spaces for transformation and innovation. Optional Bonus question (200 words) (for up to an additional 5%). If you could add an extra topic to ARTS1240 what would it be? Justify its inclusion and suggest what readings would you use as well as what examples/case studies you would mobilize.

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