Epidemiology-Assessing evidence .You will be provided a series of articles to read on a topic of some controversy in the scientific community. You will then apply your understanding of epidemiological findings, study design and causal theory to determine whether you believe the exposure at hand is causal in the disease process discussed. You will prepare a concise and well-written paper defending your position. Papers will be no longer than 4 single spaced pages in length. In your paper, you must include a brief opening statement summarizing the exposure and outcome of interest in your assigned papers and specifically state whether or not you believe the exposure to be causal in development of the outcome based only on the evidence provided. Through your writing of the paper, it is expected that you will demonstrate your facility with the relative strengths and weaknesses of different epidemiologic study designs, your ability to interpret measures of association, your ability to critically read a manuscript and take into account elements of the study’s methodology (sample size, types of measurements utilized etc) when evaluating the paper’s findings.
Aristotle (384–322 BCE), one in every of Plato’s students and also the teacher of Alexander the good, noted human soul because the psyche. Aristotle projected that the psyche is that the product of biological processes. He additionally saw the psyche as as well as a collection of faculties that he placed during a hierarchy of importance. the primary school that Aristotle distinguished is that the nutritive—the human organism’s basic drives to fulfill its bodily desires. This school is found in plants further as in animals and other people. successive and better school is that the sensory activity, that philosopher outlined because the facet of mind that interprets sensory information. Animals further as folks have a sensory activity school. The last and highest school is that the intellectual, that philosopher saw as distinctive to kith and kin. Descartes According to René mathematician (1596–1650), a French thinker, human temperament is that the product of the interaction of divine and primal forces. He saw the essential force behind human temperament because the immortal soul—pure, perfect, and intangible. mathematician started to clarify however this religious entity interacted with the material body. His observation of associate anatomical dissection semiconductor diode him to suppose he had resolved this mind-body downside. He detected atiny low body within the apparent center of the brain referred to as the epiphysis cerebri or epiphysis cerebri, therefore named by the Greco-Roman MD Claudius I Galen (c. 130–c. two hundred CE) as a result of its form reminded him of a pine cone. Descartes(1649) came to the conclusion that that this conical endocrine gland should be the purpose of contact between the soul and also the body. philosopher philosophical system, that is that the philosophical position that 2 substances—matter and spirit, or brain associated mind—exist severally of every different though they interact—became the foremost common read within the Christian West when the seventeenth century as a result of it “explained” the existence of human discretion and consciousness in an otherwise mechanistic universe. Indeed, before the appearance of the pc, it appeared not possible to permit for consciousness while not appealing to nonmaterial ideas. Machiavelli Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), a Florentine diplomat and political thinker, believed that temperament is best understood in an exceedingly social context. in keeping with Machiavelli, folks area unit basically egotistic, greedy, ungrateful, and unforgiving. moreover, he saw 2 primary forces as process human character. the primary one is associate Italian term—virtù—which is best described as a mix of positiveness, fearlessness, and assurance. Machiavelli referred to as the second force Fortuna, that is that the Latin word for luck. someone might become a robust leader with the assistance of an honest dose of virtù and Fortuna. in keeping with him leaders United Nations agency act out of kindness and a believe the essential goodness of humanity can continuously fail. This belief is usually expressed by modern folks as “nice guys end last.”>GET ANSWER