1. The following table describes hypothetical age-specific rates of heart disease in India and the United States in 2009. Also included are hypothetical age distributions for the two countries and the entire world population.
(in years) % of Population in Age Group Heart Disease Rate per 100,000 person-years
INDIA U.S.A. WORLD INDIA U.S.A.
< 30 60% 30% 50% 50 75
30-55 30% 40% 30% 80 150
> 55 10% 30% 20% 120 400
o Calculate the crude rate of heart disease for each of the two countries. Suppose that you want to compare the rate of heart disease in India to that in the United States. You know that age is an important risk factor for heart disease. Examine the age distribution of each country’s population.
o Should you use the two crude rates to compare the two countries? Why or why not?
o Calculate an age-adjusted rate for heart disease in each country. Use the age distribution of the entire world as your standard.
o Based on these answers, would you say that the age differences between India and the United States account for the entire difference in crude heart disease rates between the two countries? Why or why not?
Phthalates are present in many diverse products, including insect repellents, body lotions, perfumes, and food packaging. Because animal experiments suggest that phthalates may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system, a group of infertility specialists decided to conduct a case-control study on phthalate exposure and sperm abnormalities in adult men.100 cases with sperm abnormalities and 100 controls were identified and enrolled from among patients at their infertility clinic. 30 cases and 10 controls had high urinary phthalate levels; the remainder had normal urinary phthalate levels.
Set up and fill in the two by two table using these data
Use these data to calculate the odds ratio describing the relationship between phthalate levels and sperm abnormalities
State in words your interpretation of this odds ratio
1. For this problem, note the following chart:
(in years) % of Population in Age Group Influenza Rate per 1,000 person-years
CITY A CITY B CITY C Massachusetts CITY A CITY B CITY C
YOUNG 40% 50% 80% 60% 2 10 30
OLD 60% 50% 20% 40% 70 110 5
3. There are 10,000 individuals in City A, which is located in Massachusetts. Eight young individuals and 420 old individuals develop the flu over the course of a year.
o Use these data to calculate the crude influenza rate per 1,000 individuals per years in City A.
o What is the crude rate of influenza in City B?
o What is the crude rate of influenza in City C?
o Calculate an age-adjusted influenza rate for each of the cities. Use the age distribution for the State of Massachusetts (shown in the table) as the standard.
"For what reason do teenagers join groups?" This is an inquiry numerous guardians ask themselves. There are a few reasons why teenagers join groups, however going from; to fit in or to feel acknowledged, originate from a broken home, being defiant, these are the most well-known. Companion weight is a noteworthy impact on some teenager's choice to join posses. Youngsters on the planet today confront more associate weight than any time in recent memory. Posse contribution has been higher over the most recent ten years. While doing research on adolescents, I went over a site called Peer Pressure During Adolescence (www.mc.maricopa.eduept/dev/Fall99?peer_pressure/index.htlm). In this understanding it states; "Two noteworthy worries about the impact of companion weight are pack association and the utilization of liquor and different medications". It additionally goes onto say that packs give a feeling of wellbeing not simply having a place. The young are hunting down any individual who will tune in, regardless of whether it implies yielding to join a group. We as guardians need to talk with our youngsters and really tune in. The youngsters of the present age appear to b more forceful and enticing than any time in recent memory. We as guardians may even feel threatened by our own particular kids. Would you be able to simply envision how scared the kids must feel when drawn closer by a group part? As indicated by the TUSD Department of School Safety, it expresses that the essential period of group individuals ranges from 13-21years of age. It likewise demonstrated some regular reasons youngsters join posses, which recorded as: Character Pack individuals can't accomplish a character in their bigger group, so they pick up culture. They regularly imagine themselves as warriors against the outside world, securing their neighborhood. Security Joining a group in a group with a few posses offers extensive assurance from savagery and assault from equal packs. Cooperation Studies demonstrate that a tight structure has a tendency to need in the homes of posse individuals. Posse movement offers that closeness, that feeling of family that is regularly ailing in the home. Terrorizing Strain to join a group can turn out to be extremely unsafe. New individuals might be compelled to join by dangers, savage beatings, and starts with a specific end goal to expand posse participation. (www.tusd.k12.az.us/substance/deparment/safty/general.htl) Another motivation to be address for adolescents joining posses is partnership. Numerous would allude to this as a broken home. Possibly the guardians got a separation, or another relative brings up the youngster. Partnership for example, as recorded above "posse movement offers that closeness, that feeling of family that is frequently ailing in the home." This is really something that guardians/watchmen can remedy in their own particular family unit. In the event that individuals would speak with the young there perhaps less number of youngsters, joining posses. Having a decent correspondence with your youngsters won't just be less inclined to join groups however the medication utilize and viciousness standard for adolescents could likewise be brought down. Another motivation behind why a few teenagers may join groups is profit. There are a few reports of groups victimizing individuals, banks, and different areas. Something else would be the utilization and offering of medications. In the event that an adolescent originates from an underprivileged home or regardless of whether he/she originates from a to a great degree well off home, the offering of medications in a pack could bring them quick money. There are as yet going to be purposes behind the expansion number of teenagers in posses because of different circumstances. The fervor factor can be considered. Teenagers may feel an excite in the insubordinate demonstrations that packs perform. They may feel as though they are living in a motion picture or dreamland when really it is reality. While having a place or guaranteeing a specific shading that their foes don't care for, that can start enthusiasm for a youthful young people eyes. To have a surge in the wrongdoings packs confer or simply the entire way of life when all is said in done can catch some youngster's psyches. There are a few films that depict "the cool children" as defiant teenagers. The "needing to be cool" can prompt numerous alarming circumstance including joining a pack. It is the ideal opportunity for every one of the reasons and reasons to be done away and have the adolescent pulled back to reality, in so do by, demonstrate to them the eventual outcomes of the group way of life, and alternate choices they have throughout everyday life. In my exploration, I found a site illuminating individuals of their choices to carry on with the pack way of life. The author Rob Gallardo specifies, "One joins a posse for different reasons. Be that as it may, continueing to experience the criminal way of life dependably includes a progression of decisions. ....choices we make now constantly associate to outcomes promptly or directly not far off." (Operation No Gangs, www.operationnogangs.org) What Rob is stating is that there might be a considerable measure of explanations behind teenagers joining packs ,the more noteworthy concern would be the results that could occur bringing about that reason . We have to venture up and connect with the young of today. The young will be the following president, VP, or even an advocate for youngsters that join groups. I have a stepson who had a decent life growing up, or we figured he did. When he turned into a young person, he went down the wrong way in a manner of speaking. He stole autos, burglarized individuals, shot at people groups homes while individuals were inside. Let us simply say he was not a similar kid we knew. He spent all his youngster years' in and out adolescent offices. He turned out with a few tattoos, and his vocabulary included posse slang. He asserted to be in the MS13 (one of the most noticeably awful groups in Texas). When he turned out one time, my significant other asked him for what valid reason he was do all the stuff he was doing, his reaction was an extremely passionate one. He specified the way that his mom and my better half were not together. My better half endeavored to disclose everything to him. That was one marker that the decision he made was for originating from a broken home. He now has a child and as of late left the district imprison for breaking probation. Presently the decision he exacerbates has a much result. If we somehow happened to talk with all the previous high schooler pack individuals, I am certain there will be a few explanations behind their decision to join a group. Companion weight, fitting in, and originating from a broken home will be the best answers that will be given. Lets attempt to wipe out these purposes behind our young people purpose and support a constructive lifestyle for them.>GET ANSWER