We assume the following equation that considers the Error Term as the dependent variable and therefore estimated through residual estimation: E = 𝛿0 +𝛿1. K + v
a. Based on OLS simple form, provide a simplified formula to estimate the effect of K on the residual term.
b. If K= (k-k bar)/ Sigma, re-derive after simplification the parameters of the model
or calcium homeostasis and neuron function. As a result, cell death and neurodegeneration can occur, which contributes to the loss of cognitive abilities seen in Alzheimer’s patients (Moreira et al., 2010). Due to neurodegeneration, 4-12 years after a patient has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s, they can progress into a vegetative state (Heston et al., 1977). A study conducted by Jaul et al. revealed that 30.5% of elderly patients with dementia had persistent vegetative state (Jaul et al., 2007). However, a study done by Volicer et al demonstrated that it is unlikely for Alzheimer’s disease to progress into a vegetative state (Volicer et al., 1997). Both studies noted the difficulty in diagnosing patients with Alzheimer’s disease, since the cognitive abilities are not stable and can differ from patient to patient. Additionally, it was suggested that there was a low level of awareness among hospital staff about persistent vegetative state and minimally conscious state in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. These limitations could affect the extent to which the results of the studies can be applied to populations of patient’s with Alzheimer’s disease. Action Potentials Event-related potentials (ERPs) are voltages generated by the brain due to sensory, motor, or cognitive stimuli. During ERPs, cortical pyramidal neurons fire action potentials as the brain is processing the stimuli. The summation of these postsynaptic potentials reflect the type of the ERP (Sur et al., 2009). For example, N1 waves is elicited when a auditory stimuli is presented (Sur et al., 2009). A P2 wave may be elicited in response to sensation seeking behavior (Sur et al., 2009). P3 waves may be elicited in response to unexpected target words (Sur et al., 2009). Studies have been conducted on patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states to investigate cortical functions by evaluating ERP responses to auditory cues. In a study done by Kotchoubey et al, all patients exhibited a ERP response, however the types of responses varied. Most patients displayed N1 and P2 waves while a third displayed P3 waves. Patients in the vegetative state were also found to have slightly lower ERP results compared to those of patients in the minimally conscious state (Kotchoubey et al., 2005). A study conducted by Perrin et al investigated semantic processing in patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states, by attempting to evoke ERPs using the auditory recordings of the patient’s name, revealed similar results. P3 waves were elicited in all minim>GET ANSWER