Educators often have to determine whether programs and practices have a basis in scientific research. Use the questions to guide an original response and comments to at least two peers. APA citations are required only in the original response.
Why is it important to evaluate the scientific base of programs and practices selected to improve student achievement?
What guidelines does your school or organization use to evaluate the scientific basis of programs and practices?
What do you see as the major challenges in establishing the scientific base of a program or practice?
How does your organization use data to plan strategically?
Discussion Question 2
Putting Research Into Action
Action research provides the process by which educators can resolve issues and problems specific to their classrooms, schools, and organizations. Use the questions to guide an original response and comments to at least two peers. APA citations are required only in the original response.
How can you use action research to study and reflect on your own professional practice?
What is the role of action research in evidence-based educational practice?
What do you view as the major strengths and challenges of action research?
Discussion Question 3
Applying Data-Based Decision Making
Researchers must make important decisions about the types of data they will collect. Data may be quantitative, qualitative, or both. Use the questions to guide an original response and comments to at least two peers. APA citations are required only in the original response.
How comfortable do you feel with data and the data collection and analysis process?
What are the ethical considerations when interpreting and presenting data?
Are you more likely to rely on quantitative data, qualitative data, or both to make decisions about curriculum and instruction? Explain.
What do you view as the major strengths and challenges of using data to select scientific-based programs and strategies?
Stock speculators like Jesse Livermore used a variety of techniques to earn money. One method, as described by the PBS documentary involved wealthy investors pooling their money together "in a secret agreement to buy a stock, inflate its price and then sell it to an unsuspecting public." In 1929, Michael Meehan, the head of a brokerage firm created a pool to push up the value of RCA's stock by almost 50 percent. In one week, the pool "sold and divided up their profits. In today's money, they had made $100 million for one week's work." Those in the pool would often work with the financial press to help market the rising stock. Sobel explained in the documentary how the alliance between the rich and the press would trick normal people into joining the scheme: You want to join them, so you go out and you buy stock also. Now, what's happening is the stock goes from 10 to 15 to 20 and now, it's at 20 and you start buying, other people start buying at 30, 40. The original group, the pool, they've stopped buying. They're selling you the stock. It's now 50 and they're out of it. And what happens, of course, is the stock collapses (PBS). By "painting the tape," as this type of manipulation was called, wealthy investors could benefit from gullible, working-class speculators. In addition to pooling money, speculators also bought stocks with borrowed funds. This tactic, known as margin buying, allowed investors to multiply their returns without spending a lot of their own money. For example, if one wanted to buy $10,000 worth of stock, and the margin rate was 10 percent, they would only have to put down $1,000 while the rest is borrowed from their broker. As long as the stock price continued to go up, margin borrowers were fine. Professor Harold Bierman of Cornell University explained that while rates were typically higher than 10 percent, "at the end of October , margins were lowered to 25%" (Bierman 7). In contrast, potential margin buyers today are required to put up 50 percent of their own money. Buying on margin was especially useful for small-time investors, including Groucho Marx, the famous comedian. The documentary explained how Marx, like many people, would "rush to his broker to put more of his savings into the booming market, on margin, of course." But margin buying had its disadvantages as well. If a stock price dived, investors faced a margin call. Here, the broker would tell their client that the amount of money they had in a stock had dropped below their down payment and would need to put up more cash if they wanted to continue holding the security. If the client could not put up the money, the broker would sell the stock and the client would take a loss. Margin calls, as Bierman explains "probably exacerbated the price declines" (Bierman 7) when people started selling stocks in a panic. Most scholars believe the stock market crash of 1929 cannot be linked to a single cause. However, what can be certain is that it wiped out the fortunes of many Americans. The stock market's biggest supporters in the banking community were among the hard>GET ANSWER