Educators often have to determine whether programs and practices have a basis in scientific research. Use the questions to guide an original response and comments to at least two peers. APA citations are required only in the original response.
Why is it important to evaluate the scientific base of programs and practices selected to improve student achievement?
What guidelines does your school or organization use to evaluate the scientific basis of programs and practices?
What do you see as the major challenges in establishing the scientific base of a program or practice?
How does your organization use data to plan strategically?
Discussion Question 2
Putting Research Into Action
Action research provides the process by which educators can resolve issues and problems specific to their classrooms, schools, and organizations. Use the questions to guide an original response and comments to at least two peers. APA citations are required only in the original response.
How can you use action research to study and reflect on your own professional practice?
What is the role of action research in evidence-based educational practice?
What do you view as the major strengths and challenges of action research?
Discussion Question 3
Applying Data-Based Decision Making
Researchers must make important decisions about the types of data they will collect. Data may be quantitative, qualitative, or both. Use the questions to guide an original response and comments to at least two peers. APA citations are required only in the original response.
How comfortable do you feel with data and the data collection and analysis process?
What are the ethical considerations when interpreting and presenting data?
Are you more likely to rely on quantitative data, qualitative data, or both to make decisions about curriculum and instruction? Explain.
What do you view as the major strengths and challenges of using data to select scientific-based programs and strategies?
s and Peters, 348-353). This particular trial demonstrates how the inquisitorial system and its processes played a vital role in causing the conviction of numerous witches. The inquisitor's use of torture resulted in many false convictions of witchcraft. Therefore, the trial process was essential for validating the idea of witches through its convictions by forced confessions. In addition to the witch trials in Europe, many other trials took place in Salem, Massachusetts. The majority of the witch trials in Salem occurred in 1692 as the result poor economic conditions, congregational strife, personal jealousies, and religious ideals (Linder, "The Witchcraft Trials in Salem: A Commentary"). These trials were fairly similar to the European trials. A person would make a complaint to the Magistrate about a suspected witch who would then issue a warrant for the arrest of the accused. Next, two or more magistrates would listen to the accused person's testimony and if they thought they were guilty, the person was sent to prison to await trial. The trial was held before the Court of Oyer and Terminer where a jury instructed by the court decides the case (Linder, "Procedure Used in the Witchcraft Trials"). The accusation process is the same in Salem as in Europe; however, the only difference is that a jury decides the verdict rather than the judge. Overall in Salem and Europe the trials were the key element in convicting witches and validating the idea of witchcraft. Similar to the atrocities committed in Europe during the witch-hunt, many terrible injustices occurred in Salem due to the witch craze and panic of the public. The trial of Sarah Good effectively demonstrates the courts power and influence. Good, was an old friendless, poor, widow who was disliked by the community. She was accused of trying to kill and injure various people, killing three children, and killing many animals. At her trial, she never confessed to any crime, yet her prosecutors insisted that she was guilty and because she was so strongly disliked by the community she was found guilty (Chevers, "The Examination of Sarah Good"). Her trial demonstrates the power the courts had and how innocent people could so easily be convicted. Finally, the trial process within the witch-hunts was the key element toward validating the crime of witchcraft. The courts move from an accusatorial system to the inquisitorial system and the changes that resulted were responsible for making witchcraft a crime that needed to be punished by humans. Moreover, because the trial was where witches were convicted and sentenced, trials essentially legitimized the hunts. Through the application of torture, people confessed to being witches, making it possible to convict witches. Furthermore, the ability of the trial to validate the hunts was demonstrated by the specific trials and the convictions generated by them. Overall, without the trial process, the witch-hunts in Europe and its colonies would never have taken place.>GET ANSWER