1. Review the case study below and complete the attached worksheet
2. Outline each of the ethical theories outlined in chapter 1 of your textbook and in the lecture. Give a detailed definition of each ethical theory.
3. How might a person with the perspective of each of the ethical theories address the case study? What will be the important facts, how might the theory help address this concerns
4. Which perspective was the most in alignment with your own perspective? Which theory was the most difficult perspective for you to assume?
Nine-year-old Benton is a patient in the pediatric unit with a diagnosis of terminal-stage Ewing’s sarcoma. He has three sisters, aged 7, 6, and 3, who are presently being cared for by a grandmother. His father is self-employed and works long hours. His mother has never worked outside the home. Both parents have high school educations, and their primary activities outside of the family are church-related. They belong to a small nondenominational rural church and state that they hold fast to what is taught in the Bible and put their faith in tile word of God.
Prior to his illness, Benton, a healthy child, had been brought to the clinic only for acute health concerns. The family does not have health insurance. Shortly after entering second grade 2 years ago, he began limping. The family attributed the limp to a playground injury. When he continued to complain of pain and the limp persisted after 3 months, his mother took him to a local health clinic. Above-the-knee amputation followed diagnosis, but metastasis was evident in 9 months. Chemotherapy has only been palliative.
The physician has discussed Benton’s poor prognosis with the parents, recommending comfort care. The parents say they want everything possible to be done for him, and the father conducts nightly prayer sessions at Benton’s bedside, affirming that God is healing Benton. Although Benton has asked whether he is going to die, his father refuses to allow staff to speak with him regarding fears or concerns about his condition. When asked what Benton has been told, the father responds, “He knows God is trying us and we must have faith,” The mother, who appears less confident of a healing, is there 24 hours a day. She supervises Benton’s care relentlessly, at times irritating staff with questions and demands. She keeps a notebook record of her son’s care, including medication, times of care, intake and output, and personal assessments. Although Benton used to talk to staff, he now appears frightened and remains quiet, sleeping off and on.
This examination means to research whether there is a bidirectional connection between poor rest quality, high weight file (BMI) and scattered eating (voraciously consuming food and evening time eating). Members were a network determined example (N= 330) of individuals selected through notices set at the Australian National University (ANU) grounds and various online stages. An online poll approached members for their stature, weight and ongoing encounters of rest and eating. Numerous relapse examinations found that: (a) more regrettable generally speaking rest quality and voraciously consuming food (yet not evening time eating) were decidedly connected with high BMI representing a noteworthy 8% of the inconstancy in BMI; and (b) high BMI and evening time eating (yet not pigging out) were emphatically connected with more awful by and large rest quality representing 35.6% of the changeability in more awful by and large rest quality. These outcomes demonstrate that scattered eating (gorge as well as evening eating) halfway depict the relationship between poor rest quality and high BMI. Future research could be directed utilizing objective-instead of self-announced proportions of rest quality, BMI and eating conduct to control for mistakes that self-detailed measures may present. The Bidirectional Association between High Body Mass Index, Poor Sleep Quality and Disordered Eating This paper explores whether there is a bidirectional connection between poor rest quality, high weight file and confused eating. Ebb and flow look into authenticates the relationship between poor rest quality and being overweight or corpulent. Rest quality is an expansive idea that incorporates: rest length, trouble falling as well as staying unconscious and the utilization of rest meds (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, Berman and Kupfer, 1989; Krystal& Edinger, 2008). This examination makes utilization of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to quantify rest quality. PSQI is a compelling and generally utilized self-revealed instrument that is high in unwavering quality and legitimacy, comprising of inquiries that are straightforward and reply (Buysse et al., 1989; Smyth, 1999). PSQI estimates abstract rest quality in seven unmistakable regions, including: rest inertness and rest span (Krystal& Edinger, 2008; Smyth, 1999). One of the key interests in this examination is the relationship among PSQ and having a high weight record (BMI); i.e., being overweight or large. As per the World Health Organization's arrangement, a BMI of ≥25 demonstrates that a man is overweight and ≥30 shows that a man is fat (World Health Organization, 2000). Observational proof confirms a relationship among PSQ and having a high BMI (hBMI). For example, longitudinal examinations and concentrates on extensive blended race and financially various examples found that resting under seven hours and experiencing difficulty falling and additionally staying unconscious was decidedly connected with hBMI (Gangwisch, Malaspina, Boden-Albala& Heymsfield, 2005; Meyer, Wall, Larson, Laska and Neumark-sztainer, 2012). Moreover, observational discoveries from cross-sectional examinations with blended race tests show that: stout people encounter shorter rest spans contrasted with non-hefty people; for each hour of rest lost the danger of stoutness expanded by 80%; and PSQ prompts diminishes in physical action which is therefore connected with hBMI (Cappuccio, et al., 2008; Gupta, Mueller, Chan and Meininger, 2002) Not very many examinations that endeavored to clarify how PSQ is related with hBMI discovered that rest apnea may intervene this relationship (Yeh& Brown, 2014). Rest apnea alludes to rest unsettling influence because of constant interferences to wind stream through the nose and mouth on somewhere around 30 events amid a seven-hour rest period (Guilleminault, Tilkian and Dement, 1976). Nonetheless, rest apnea is moderately unprecedented in the populace (Tishler, Larkin, Schulchter &Redline, 2003) while PSQ is more typical (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, Berman and Kupfer, 1989). In this manner, it tends to be gathered that just a little extent of hBMI people with PSQ experience the ill effects of rest apnea and there may be other potential clarifications for the relationship among PSQ and hBMI (Yeh& Brown, 2014). Given that no different examinations have endeavored to additionally research factors that intervene the connection among PSQ and hBMI, this examination endeavors to do as such by exploring whether confused eating intercedes this relationship. Cluttered eating incorporates both: pigging out and evening time eating. Voraciously consuming food (BE) alludes to devouring bizarrely a lot of nourishment in a moderately brief time-length and saw absence of authority over one's eating conduct (American Psychiatric Association, as refered to in Johnson, Carr-Nangle, Nangle, Antony and Zayfert, 1997). This investigation utilizes the Binge Eating Scale (BES) – a survey that estimates whether and to what degree people pig out by inquisitive about their eating practices and inclinations (Gormally, Black, Daston& Rardin, 1982). Though, evening time eating (NTE) alludes to devouring >25% of one's caloric admission after supper as well as in the wake of awakening around evening time, somewhere around two times per week (Allison et al., 2010; Stunkard, Grace&Wolff). This investigation utilizes the Night-time Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) to distinguish whether and the recurrence of which members participate in NTE conduct (Striegel-Moore, Franko and Garcia, 2009). Yeh and Brown (2014) propose that trouble nodding off and shorter rest lengths furnish hBMI people with more opportunity to eat, subsequently prompting weight increase after some time. This is as per Andersen, Stunkard, Sorenson, Peterson and Heitmann (2004) and Crispim, Zimberg, dos Reis, Tufik and de Mello (2011) who separately found that NTE was related with both PSQ and weight gain in hBMI people. So also, exact research has demonstrated that BE is related with PSQ and hBMI in large people (Yeh& Brown, 2014). In light of both: the absence of research examining potential arbiters of the relationship among PSQ and hBMI and research showing that disarranged eating is related with PSQ and hBMI, the present examination planned to decide if scattered eating (NTE and BE) intercedes the connection among PSQ and hBMI. The theories of this investigation were: (1) Poor rest quality and scattered eating will be related with high BMI; and, (2) High BMI and confused eating will be related with higher scores of poor rest quality. Strategy Members Members were selected through ads set at the Australian National University (ANU) grounds and various online stages. Study incorporation criteria were: being ≥ 18 years of age and a BMI of 18.5 (typical weight) or more. 678 members selected to partake in this investigation; anyway information from just 330 members were utilized in light of the fact that the staying 348 did not meet the examination incorporation criteria or did not finish the examination. Of the 330 members, 107 (32.4%) were guys, 223 (67.6%) were females, the ages extended from 18-87 years and the mean age was 27.42 years (SD=10.36). Methodology Members got to the examination by tapping on an implanted URL in the promotion. On the off chance that they met the investigation criteria and agreed to take an interest, they reacted to an online poll asking about: their ongoing encounters of rest and eating and tallness and weight, to figure their BMI. SPSS factual programming (adaptation 22) was utilized to play out every single measurable examination. Two standard various relapse investigations were performed to test the two speculations. Materials Socioeconomics including training level were gathered. BMI was ascertained by registering members' weight (in kilograms) over their tallness (in meters); with a BMI of ≥25 showing overweightness and ≥30 demonstrating stoutness. Next, the PSQI surveyed seven abstract areas of rest. A general PSQI score (extending from 0 to 21) of >5 showed moderate to serious rest challenges. By and large rest score has high inside consistency dependability with a Cronbach's α of .83 (Smith and Wegener, 2003). Thirdly, BE was estimated utilizing the BES; which comprises of 16-things reflecting practices and sentiments identified with eating. A general BES score (extending from 0 to 46) of >27 showed voraciously consuming food and a higher by and large score demonstrated more awful pigging out. In this examination, BES had high interior consistency with a Cronbach's α of .92. At long last, NTE was estimated utilizing NEQ which comprises of 15 questions. A general NEQ score (extending from 0 to 52) of >25 demonstrated NTE conduct. In this investigation, the NEQ demonstrated adequate interior consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of .73. Results Various anomalies were distinguished for every one of the factors; in any case, none of these were barred in light of the fact that they spoke to clinically important cases. Kolmogorov-Smirnov insights of in general rest quality, BMI, BE and NTE were observed to be non-critical (i.e., p<.05); which implies that these key factors were typically dispersed. Two various relapse examinations (MRA) were led to explore whether: (a) PSQ and scattered eating (BE and NTE) were related with high BMI; and (b) regardless of whether high BMI and confused eating (BE and NTE) were related with higher scores of PSQ. Means and standard deviations of the key factors are appeared in Table 1.>GET ANSWER