Descriptive statistics are often combined with frequency distributions to quickly determine a basic mathematical
as well as a visual understanding of a large amount of collected data (Mihaescu, 2012). Basic inferential
statistics—involving more advanced hypothesis testing and predictive power—will be introduced later in the
course.
clearer picture of the data. Among the different types of graphs that you will be examining in this section are
line graphs, bar charts, and pie charts. Some of these graphs better represent nominal and ordinal data, while
some better represent interval and ratio data.
You will also examine frequency distributions, such as tables and histograms—which is a way of presenting
data that shows the number of cases in each of the variables. For parametric statistics, the histogram is an
important depiction of the data, as it displays the counts of interval and ratio data. Histograms are used to
explore whether the data is normally distributed (this will be discussed later on in the course).
Remember that there are additional resources available in the Supplemental Resources under Course
Hello Writer,
The work for this week needs to answer the questions directly into this worksheet from the data given from
SPSS. The Professor asked me to just answer the questions in this worksheet directly into this worksheet
below. I will send the SPSS 27 data for this assignment through an email with Support.
Week 2 – Assignment: Develop Graphs and Frequency Distributions
for Categorical and Continuous Variables (10 Points)
Any statistical software provides you the opportunity to create graphs and
visually depict the data and the results of your analyses. This week, you will
create several different types of graphs and provide examples of different
graphs.
In this SPSS assignment, you will increase your understanding of graphs and
frequency distributions as well as their value when interpreting data.
Complete the following steps and include your responses to submit to your
professor:
1.
Using the following data, where the grade is your factor and the
score is your outcome variable, open a new SPSS file and enter the
data. Then using the graph tab, then legacy dialogs, create the
following graphs and include them in your submission.
a.
line graph
b.
bar chart
c.
pie chart
Score
1 45
2 56
3 49
4 57
5 61
6 72
2.
Discuss which of these graphs (line, bar, pie) present these data
better.
a.
The file SPSS Exam.sav contains data regarding students’
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performance on an SPSS exam.
b.
Four variables were measured:
i.
exam
(first-year SPSS exam score as a percentage)
ii.
computer
(measure of computer literacy in percentage)
iii.
lecture
(percentage of SPSS lectures attended)
iv.
numeracy
(a measure of numerical ability out of 15)
c.
There is a variable called
uni
indicating whether the students
attended World University, Universe University, Planet
University, and Cosmos University.
3.
Create two bar charts: one bar chart with sex (biological sex) in the
x-axis and one bar chart with the university on the x-axis. Include
4.
Create two frequency distribution tables for sex and university
following questions.
a.
What percentage of the sample is male and female?
b.
What percentage of the sample attended World U, Universe U,
Planet U, and Cosmos U?
5.
For computer literacy and lectures attended, create two frequency
distribution tables with their respective histograms.
Include these
tables with your submission and provide the following information.
a.
Computer Literacy
(Place the frequency distribution table and histogram here)
b.
Numeracy
(Place the frequency distribution table and histogram here)
c.
Describe the shape of the frequency distributions.
d.
Differentiate between the frequency, percent, valid percent,
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and cumulative percent columns.
6.
Please discuss when it is appropriate to use a bar chart and when it is appropriate to use a histogram to
display data (keep in mind the level of measurement of the variables).
Be sure to review this week’s resources carefully. You are expected to apply the information from these
resources when you prepare your assignments.
Show data table for This chart displays the number of completed topics versus the total number of topics within
module Week 2..
List of Topics and Sub-Modules for Week 2
• Books and Resources for this Week
o Clark, T., & Bolt, S. (2012). Bar chart. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 57-61).
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
o Gordon, M., & Courtney, R. (2018). SPSS. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational
research, measurement, and evaluation…
o Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Explore (Chapter 12). In Performing data analysis using
IBM SPSS. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
o Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Frequencies (Chapter 10). In Performing data analysis
using IBM SPSS. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
o Mihaescu, O. P. (2012). Frequency distribution. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp.
504-507). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
o Persaud, N. (2012). Graphical display of data. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp.
542-544). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
o Streiner, D. (2012). Histogram. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 572-573).
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
o Streiner, D. (2012). Pie chart. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 1031-1032).
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
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o Week 2 Assignment Worksheet
Word Document
o SPSS Exam
SAV File
Books and Resources for this Week

Show data table for This chart displays the number of completed topics versus the total number of topics within
module Books and Resources for this Week..
List of Topics and Sub-Modules for Books and Resources for this Week
• Clark, T., & Bolt, S. (2012). Bar chart. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 57-61).
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
This resource presents the importance of using bar charts to depict descriptive data. Specifically, presenting
nominal and ordinal scale data.
• Gordon, M., & Courtney, R. (2018). SPSS. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational
research, measurement, and evaluation…
This resource presents an introduction to the basic commands available in SPSS. It presents the description of
the different windows found in the software, as well as instructions to conduct basic analyses.
• Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Explore (Chapter 12). In Performing data analysis using
IBM SPSS. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
This chapter discusses the procedures to explore the data using SPSS. It provides all of the options that are
available through the explore option in SPSS.
• Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Frequencies (Chapter 10). In Performing data analysis
using IBM SPSS. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
This chapter discusses the procedures to run frequencies to explore the data using SPSS. It provides
discussion and procedures to run frequencies for the variables.
• Mihaescu, O. P. (2012). Frequency distribution. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp.
504-507). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Frequency distributions are used to depict all the values that the variable has taken in a dataset. They are very
useful in descriptive statistics, as they allow the possibility of viewing each score and the respective frequency.
• Persaud, N. (2012). Graphical display of data. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp.
542-544). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
In research, business, and educational reports, graphs are used to present a clear picture of the data. This
resource describes the characteristics of graphs and how to organize the data to better display the information.
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