Describe the social, psychological, personal, and cultural factors that influence consumer behavior. Provide examples and economic models in discussion.
n this assignment, the concepts of critical theory and critical pedagogy will be explained through literature and research. The research that has been conducted in inclusive practice, alongside the research methods that was used, will be analysed. Finally, the concepts of critical theory and the knowledge that has been gained from undertaking this task, will then be applied to the professional context in which I work. Critical theory McKernan (2013) states that critical theory is used to describe the social criticism that was originally introduced by the Frankfurt School. The Frankfurt school is a collective of theorists based in Germany who developed the concept of critical theory. Key thinkers include; Weil, Adorno, Horkheimer and Marcuse. Their beliefs were grounded in Marxist-Leninist thinking. Critical theory is a broad tradition which considers critique as a method of investigation to rid society of social inequality. This was influenced by the work of Marx and his concept of ‘kritik’. This is through the means of challenging political, social and economic policies. McLaren (2012) expands on this by suggesting that as individuals, we are surrounded by power and privilege in every sense. It is dominant groups that exercises oppression over subordinate groups through force and social practices, implemented by institutions such as education. However, education does not just entail indoctrination of knowledge and social practices, but it also has the power to empower and transform its’ learners. McLaren usefully notes that education dominates learners in that education reproduces social class and capitalism but, education can liberate learners if educators transfer the knowledge to help students understand, recognise and examine the political, social and economic foundations of a capitalist society. Pollock and Cox (1991) discusses that the purpose of critical theory is to make sense of and respond to the problems of society. Critical theorists do this by questioning power relations about their origins and how they may be changing. For Pollock and Cox, critical theory recognises that knowledge represents certain values which need to be questioned, examined and changed. They explain that critical theory however, is a debate which is shaped by a historical context and its’ own historical values. Pollock and Cox write that a new generation of critical theorists such as Apel, Habermas and Wellmer had sought to integrate communication theory with traditional critical theory. This suggests that in order to be critical, the original concept of critical theory needed to be examined itself with regards to its’ origins and the values which were represented by the Frankfurt School. Consequently, Alexander (1985) outlines Habermas’ new critical theory; a theory of communicative action. This theory was influenced partly from Habermas’ work with Parsons and Piaget. Habermas’ new ideas of critical theory founded a ‘speech act theory’ >GET ANSWER