- How do you think financial ratios differ across different industries? Compare two industries of your choice and select a few ratios and explain whether you think the ratios would be higher or lower for each of those industries and explain why.
- What are some uses and limitations of financial ratios?
Fungi can grow anywhere over a wide-ranging temperature with sufficient nutrients and moisture . Therefore, indoor mold problem has long existed in yearlong warm and humid countries like Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. In previous research, airborne fungi growth was found in a high humid room (relative humidity ~87%) in a higher educational building of computer studies after conventional remediation such as detergent-cleaning and changing of the affected ceiling boards . It is dangerous since researchers suggested that the chances of transmitting the contaminating microbes through using of computers in a university setting is potentially great due to the enormous usage of computer keyboards that are not routinely sanitized by numerous users daily . The study also shows that the conventional remediation is not a long term solution to circumvent the indoor airborne fungal contamination. However, green solutions are needed to reduce the viability of the airborne fungi and thereby the existence of secondary metabolites of fungi in indoor setting in order to secure the quality of teaching and learning among educators and students in a university building. Lately, a bioactive compound from food industry, potassium sorbate had been shown to be able to control the growth of two fungus species (Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate) isolated from an indoor waterborne coating . It is suggested to be effective against airborne fungi too. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of potassium sorbate as a biocide to render the viability of indoor airborne fungi in a higher educational building of computer studies of a university located at Southern Peninsular Malaysia. Materials and Methods Selection of Testing Sites. The indoor airborne fungal samples were taken from a new commissioning higher educational building of computer studies of a university in Johor, Malaysia that had been identified of having microbial growth in indoor environment from previous research . Three sites were selected by walk through inspection. They were each to represent a microbial-contaminated site (A), relatively mildly-contaminated site (B) and outdoors (O) of the building. The location for outdoor sampling was as close as possible to the outdoor air intake for the primary air handling system for the building . Biocide Antifungal Activity. The antifungal activity of the potassium sorbate as a biocide was evaluated by air sampling with biocide-treated and untreated culture media which takes into account that the concentration of the viable fungi can be represented by colony forming unit (CFU) analysis as the calculation below: CFU/m3 = [Number of colonies x 1000] ÷ [Sampling time (min) x Flow rate (L/min)]. (1) The airborne fungi samples were collected using a BioStage single-stage viable cascade impactor (SKC, USA) attached to a SKC QuickTake 30 Sample Pump (SKC, USA) onto Malt Extract Agar (MEA) plates with 0.03% (w/v) biocide at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min as per requirement of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) stated in method NIOSH Manual Analytical Standard Method (NMAM 0800). The impactor was located at the centre of the sampling location at a height of 1.0 to 1.5 meter above the floor. Every sample was obtained over>GET ANSWER