To what extent and in what ways did reformers in United States promote social changes which benefited a majority of Americans during the so-called Progressive Era?
In writing your answer, use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1900-1920.
Source: “Concerning Three Articles in this Number of McClures,” Editorial in McClure’s, 1904.
“The Shame of Minneapolis” could well have served for the current chapter of Miss Tarbell’s History of Standard Oil. . . . Miss Tarbell has our capitalists conspiring among themselves deliberately, shrewdly, upon legal advice, to break the law so far as it restrained them, and to misuse it to restrain others who were in their way. . . . In “The shame of Minneapolis” we see the administration of a city employing criminals to commit crimes for the profit of the elected officials, while the citizens – Americans of good stock and more than average culture, and honest, healthy Scandinavians – stood by complacent and not alarmed.
We all are doing our worst and making the public pay. The public is the people. We forget that we all are the people; that while each of us in his group can shove off on the rest of the bill of to-day, the debt is only postponed; the rest are passing it on back to us. And in the end the sum total of the debt will be our liberty.
Source: Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities, 1904.
The honest citizens of Philadelphia have no more rights at the polls than the negroes down South. Nor do they fight very hard for this basic privilege. . . . If you remind the average Philadelphian that he is in the same position, he will look startled, then say, “That’s so, that’s literally true, only I never thought of it in just that way.” And it is literally true.
The [political] machine controls the whole process of voting, and practices fraud at every stage. . . . The assessor pads the list with the names of dead dogs, children, and non-existent persons.
The machine controls the election officers, often choosing them from among fraudulent names; and when no one appears to serve, assigning the heeler ready for the expected vacancy.
Butler’s arguments are suggestive of new gender possibilities but empirical application is scant. Feminist post-structuralists have focused on gendered meanings through which discourses can ‘make sense’ of sexed bodies (de Lauretis, 1987; Diamond and Quinby, 1988; Grosz, 1994), but this move to understand discursive systems is divorced from the material world and everyday practices within it. There are exceptions. Studies have shown that discourses of gender regimes can change, for instance among families in developing China (Powell and Cook, 2006). Other analysis suggests that bodies materialize in the image of organizationally-specific discourses of gender (Borgerson, 2005), as classed and sexed bodies in Bettie’s (2003) study of high school girl culture, and as nationally-grounded sexualized bodies in the world of dance, which Nash (2000) sees as a travelling set of discourses that bodies perform. In studies of women at work, the businesswoman ‘power dresses’ her body for the corporate workplace (Entwistle, 1997, 2000) and women workers perform the ‘docile and dexterous’ body on the factory floor in Mexican maquiladores (Salzinger, 2003). Men at work similarly enact different scripts of masculinity within situational practices and relations (Connell, 2005). Broader social norms structure workplace expectations of what men should do, such as the ‘camp’ hairstylist which threatens to destabilize masculinity in its hegemonic form, or the ‘macho’ fire fighter who upholds it (Hall et al., 2007). Thus, organizational environments serve as contexts for the iteration of gender, creating the conditions for particular subjectivities (Borgerson, 2005; see also Brewis, 2000, on sex work). We extend this analysis to examine gender performativity in a work context where men and women perform the same job but within very different discursive settings of appropriate gender identities. Further, modelling sits outside formal organizations, which have been the focus of so much research. Our comparative analysis is especially useful since gender is a relational construct (Deutsch, 2009) and such a comparative case offers insight into how men’s and women’s bodies matter differently. Furthermore, as Deutsch notes, while much research on gender performances attempt to demonstrate the ways in which women or men ‘do’ gender, and how discourses of difference are maintained and reified through practice, we suggest that the presence of men in fashion modelling holds potential to ‘undo’ gender.>GET ANSWER