69-year-old Caucasian female presents with a report of depression, insomnia and some memory problems that are not too troubling.
Depression began after husband fell out of an airplane 11 years ago causing his death- reports having had a good supportive relationship with him and just could not believe he had died (with tears); sleep problems since youth worsened after husband’s death- sleeps 4-5 hours nightly without Xanax- wakes after about 1-2 hours of sleep without Xanax; referred by primary care provider who has been prescribing Prozac and Xanax; no romantic relationship since husband’s death though she may consider entering a relationship with the right man.
Depression helped with Prozac and sleep helped with Xanax taken for several years (over 5 years)
Agrees to taper Xanax and begin other sleep medication e.g. trazodone not previously prescribed- denies overuse of Xanax saying she only takes as needed for addiction concern she heard of from friends
Denies any psychiatric hospitalization
MSE: well appearing; well groomed; normal weight for height; pleasant and cooperative; overall WNL with mood generally appearing not depressed; fair insight and judgment; no history of SI, HI, AH, VH
Denies street drug use or alcohol use
Medical hx: Diabetes Mellitus & Hypertension treated with medications
Medications prescribed at visit:
Xanax 1mg po hs prn (was prescribed 1mg bid; has been taking half of one mg bid as needed)
Prozac 40mg one po am
Family & Social hx: lives in owned condo alone; husband died suddenly after falling out of an airplane after 35 years of marriage; two adult children one (son) who has ‘emotional’ issues does not talk about them, and other child (daughter) seeing a psychiatrist since father’s death; practicing Christian; high school education; last worked 3 years ago in sales; has friends with whom she has fun; attends the gym 3 days of the week; 6-year-old grandson hit by a truck in her presence however she does not clearly remember what happened- fractured ribs suffered by grandson; parents of grandson not allowing her to see grandchildren causing tears and sadness (that clear) at visit and a few times weekly; does not attend psychotherapy and this intervention has not been previously suggested to her- agrees to psychotherapy and wants to know what kind of therapy she will receive e.g. CBT she heard of from friends
address each of the following areas-
• Management of health status
• Maintenance of Nurse Practitioner-client relationship
• Professional role i.e. advocacy, ethics, policy, collaboration and consultation, leadership, referrals, research
• Negotiating health care delivery e.g. cost, access, efficacy
• Monitoring quality of care
• Providing culturally sensitive care
• Health promotion and prevention, health protection & treatment
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.